Presentation - India Pakistan Political Relations - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides. Topic: Pakistan's relations with Neighboring Countries Part I: India & Afghanistan. Recap of lecture # Steps for the Process of Islamization; Pakistan – China. the Pakistan-India relations, military cooperation and security management, we developed future scenarios for the relations between India and Pakistan. In.
Indians and Pakistanis have developed very stereotypical attitudes towards each other, which are rigid and cannot change in a short period. However, as this article makes the case, that given the way the conflict environment is evolving, both Indians and Pakistanis may be forced to rethink their attitudes and change the narratives that perpetuate bitterness and enmity towards each other.
The times have certainly changed and both sides have a subtle realisation of this fact. Nuclear weapons and multiple delivery systems have shaped the environment in such a way that any armed conflict now possesses an inherent risk of escalation to a nuclear exchange. Furthermore, the stability in deterrence is questionable because the nuclear thresholds are undefined and a vast difference of perception exists on both sides.
Scholars claim that the main aim of this posture is to draw immediate international attention and mediation in case of a crisis and prevent it from escalation to any kind of armed conflict. This is evident from the responses — both actual and rhetorical — to the five major terrorist incidents that occurred during the past fifteen years, as discussed below.
By the time the Kaluchak attacks happened on 14 Mayin which 31 soldiers and their families were killed by terrorists belonging to Lashkar-e-Toiba, the Indian army had already been mobilised and the army units were sitting in battle formations awaiting final orders to go to war.
The situations de-escalated after Pakistan, under pressure from the United States, made gestures of reigning in the militant groups and their leaders. India did not mobilise its troops. Pakistan moved its troops towards the border, albeit only briefly, which were withdrawn after few days of talks. The case, besides lacking sufficient evidence to hold any particular organisation or state responsible, received an unusual media lacklustre in India.
An operation that lasted nearly three days resulted in all six terrorists dead along with seven security personnel and a civilian. The Indian intelligence agencies linked the terrorists to Jaish-e-Mohammed, based on the evidence tracked from the phone calls and GPS. Almost all debates on the news channels and editorials of newspapers in India pursued the theme that the terrorist attacks should not derail the peace process between the two countries. These five major terrorist attacks in India that had originated in Pakistan show us the changing conflict terrain in nuclearized South Asia during the last two decades.
This implies that the space for an armed conflict in South Asia has definitely reduced. This, in turn, has paved the way for diplomatic dialogues, both official and unofficial, as a breakdown of diplomacy leaves no option other than military action. The Indian government claimed that the boy was involved in the protests, whereas those living in the area said that he was inside his place of residence, and was hit Hussain, India-Pakistan Relations and Nuclear Weapons Given the conflict over Kashmir, there are always concerns that a war between these two states could escalate because of nuclear weapons.
Historically, there have been questions as to whether either side would actually be willing to use such powerful and dangerous weapons, knowing the implications of such an act. However, there is at least some evidence to suggest that the worsening India-Pakistani relations over Kashmir have led leaders to at least consider the possibility of a nuclear attack. On December 13th,five Pakistani gunmen began an attack on the Indian parliament building in the city of New Delhi.
India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
A total of 14 people were killed with five of them being the gunmen. India said that the group Lashkar-e-Taiba, an organization based out of Kashmir, was responsible for the attack. India also said that the group was backed by Pakistan. What happened next left many fearing for the worst: India brought abouttroops to the border. In addition, they also had prepared their nuclear missiles. Other comments were equally, if not even more alarming.
There was serious belief by world leaders that India was going to enter a war with Pakistan following this attack. According to US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice at the time, she worked to reduce hostilities, which she believes helped to somewhat calm a high tense time. It is believed that Indian military officials had some go-ahead to strike carry out a strike against Pakistan Hindustan Times, ND.
However, India recognized that little value would come from a war with Pakistan. There was too many positive developments happening in the country of India to jeopardize with a war that might not even lead to any positive political outcome NPR, Scholars argue that part of the reason for the escalation in rhetoric, and the possibility of a nuclear war between these two countries is not only that Pakistan has attempted to do more following the establishment of the nuclear weapons, but also that India has generally not taken Pakistani nuclear threats very seriously.
Furthermore, leaders in the government have iterated their lack of concern by Pakistan nuclear weapons comments, which only further suggests a lack of seriousness towards the issue. Improving India-Pakistan Relations Given the state of conflict between these two countries, scholars and policymakers have long posited options for improved ties between India and Pakistan. Some have long argued that a reduction of nuclear weapons would be one positive step in ensuring that a major conflict with such devastating tools would not be possible.
Others have suggested that cooperation is what is necessary not only to prevent a war, but also to build strong states and institutions. India could consume as much energy as it could receive from any and all of its neighbors. Energy relationships create dependency relationships, almost by definition. The Carter Center also argues for continued diplomacy. For them, it is important that conversations continue, even when violence breaks out. In the talks, it is also imperative for compromise Carter Center, Moreover, it has been argued that the United States has a role in helping to improve India-Pakistan relations.
Scholars and those in policy alike argue there is a lot that the United States can do to help both India and Pakistan.
India-Pakistan Relations: A Brief Survey of the Evolving Conflict Terrain
They can be a key actor in improving relations between the two states. India-Pakistan Relations in India and Pakistan continues to fight over the Kashmir region inall the while speaking against one another at the United Nations.
For example, during the opening of the United Nations, both countries took turns trading verbal barbs.India Pakistan Relations
Indian army discovered this in May when the snow thawed. This resulted in intense fighting between Indian and Pakistani forces, known as the Kargil conflict. Pakistan later withdrew from the remaining portion under international pressure and high casualties. Other territorial claims You can help by adding to it.
March The relations are locked in other territorial claims such as the Siachen Glacier and Kori Creek. Water is cited as one possible cause for a conflict between the two nations, but to date issues such as the Nimoo Bazgo Project have been resolved through diplomacy. East Bengali refugees InIndia recorded close to 1 million Hindu refugees, who flooded into West Bengal and other states from East Pakistan now Bangladeshowing to communal violence, intimidation and repression from authorities.
The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, which were unable to absorb them. Although many Indians termed this appeasement, Nehru signed a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions.
Khan and Nehru also signed a trade agreement, and committed to resolving bilateral conflicts through peaceful means. Steadily, hundreds of thousands of Hindus returned to East Pakistan, but the thaw in relations did not last long, primarily owing to the Kashmir conflict.
Afghanistan—India relations and Afghanistan—Pakistan relations Afghanistan and Pakistan have had their own historic rivalry over their border, the Durand Linewhich numerous Afghan governments have refused to recognize as the border.
This has led to strong tensions between the two countries and even military confrontationsresulting in Pakistan as victorious. Pakistan has long accused Afghanistan of harboring Baloch separatist rebels and attempting to sponsor separatist tendencies amongst its Pashtun and Baloch populations, going as far back as the s. It has been believed that Pakistan during the s, then under Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoin retaliation began supporting Islamist factions in Afghanistan.
The later Soviet intervention in Afghanistan to prevent further escalation and eventual Islamist takeover of the country proved disastrous afterwards. The United States and its allies feared direct Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and began aiding Pakistan's support for the Afghan Mujaheddin, in hopes of crippling the Soviet Union.
The Soviet-Afghan war turned out to be a stalemate with heavy casualties on all sides and costly for the Soviets. Under international agreement, the Soviets withdrew. But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power. Continued rival proxy support led to the civil warin which Pakistan supported in the Talibanseeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance.
After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil Warthe Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan — one of the three countries to do so — before the 11 September attacks.
India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations.
India's relations with AfghanistanPakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan.
The Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in KabulAfghanistan on 7 July at 8: Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action".
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relationsthe Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmirincluding the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed. Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government.
Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India. A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity.
On 13 Julyarmed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more. Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar.
The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr.
A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured.