Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause
The menstrual cycle from menarche to menopause. Menstruation has Ovarian cycle. The ovarian cycle involves changes in the ovaries. reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality from cardiovascular and .. Relationships of age at menarche and menopause, and reproductive year with. And women with early menstruation who had no children were even more likely to "Understanding the relationship [between first and last periods] will due to ovarian problems that then lead to early menopause, but it's not.
Particularly for age at menarche, the long time interval between the event and data collection may have caused imprecise reporting. Our findings should encourage studies of the independent role of duration of the reproductive period on the risk of breast cancer and endometrial cancer, since these cancers have been associated with exposure to estrogens and progestogens.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. BMIBreastScreen Norwaymenarchemenopausereproductive periodsmoking Introduction In addition to age at menopause, also age at menarche first menstrual period has been associated with future health Dossus et al. It remains uncertain, however, whether age at menarche is related to age at menopause Forman et al. Some studies report that women with early menarche also have early menopause Hardy and Kuh, ; Nagata et al.
Other studies report that women with early menarche have late menopause van Keep et al. If age at menarche is not related to age at menopause, women with early menarche may have a longer time interval between menarche and menopause than women with late menarche.Period Problems around Menopause - Dr. Aruna Muralidhar
A long reproductive period implies high cumulative exposure to endogenous female sex hormones such as estrogens and progestogens, and has consistently been associated with increased risk of hormone related cancers, such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer Dossus et al. In contrast, a long reproductive period has also been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease Mansoor et al.
Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause
The duration of the reproductive period is closely linked to age at menarche and age at menopause. To better understand the independent role of the reproductive period on disease risk, reliable knowledge about the relation of age at menarche with age at menopause and with duration of the reproductive period is important.
Among women participating in the BreastScreen Norway, we aimed to estimate age at natural menopause according to age at menarche. We also estimated the time interval from menarche to natural menopause reproductive period according to age at menarche.
All women who attended the screening program during the years — were invited to answer a questionnaire about their health and lifestyle prior to age 50 years and also a questionnaire about current health and lifestyle Hofvind, The questionnaires were attached to the postal invitation to the first screening examination, and were returned at the examination site.
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Subject identification Community controls were enrolled by a stratified random selection from population lists of licensed drivers and Medicare beneficiaries women aged 65 or more years. Controls were selected to match, in 5-year intervals, the age distribution of eligible and enrolled breast cancer cases; approximately one control was recruited per case. Inclusion criteria required that all controls have a listed telephone number.
Of 28, women identified as potential controls, 1. Data collection All women completed a structured to minute telephone interview of reproductive characteristics and lifestyle factors. Questions regarding age at menarche were identical during all enrollment periods. In the first of the three pooled studies study I: In the most recent two of the three studies study II: Tukey's test for comparing mean values of age at menarche, menopause, and number of reproductive years was used to account for multiple comparisons We evaluated several covariates as potential confounders.
State of residence was also included in all models but did not obtain statistical significance. Birth cohorts were constructed using 5- and year intervals.
In looking at the average age at menarche, we utilized year birth cohorts to account for the wide range of birth years available for analysis — Models for age at menarche included state of residence as a covariate. At the time of interview, participants' ages ranged from 20 to 80 years of age. Age at natural menopause We restricted age at menopause models to naturally menopausal women aged 60 or more years.
Women born in — were categorized into 5-year birth cohorts. Under either condition, the age at induced menopause has implications for risk of chronic disease other than the cancer associated with chemical treatmentsaging, and quality of life.
Hormone therapy can also alter the course of and disease risk associated with age at menopause. An understanding of the relationship between the ages at menarche and menopause may lead to an exploration of underlying mechanisms related to follicular atresia, fertility, and disease across the life course.
Yet, the area under the curve for all girls who experience menarche for the first time in a year does not predict which of them will experience ovulatory cycles and be fertile or which women will experience a natural, chemical, or surgical menopause from among all women of reproductive age.
This paper is written from the perspective of our two fields — life-course epidemiology and demography. The objectives of this article are to 1 describe follicular development and aging and trends in the age at menarche and menopause; 2 review the state of the science of the association between the two sentinel events, the factors linking ages at menarche, and menopause; and 3 offer recommendations for future research. What do we know?