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By the following year when Soviet forces had "liberated" Estonia from the Germans, it became clear that to return to his native land had become an impossibility.

Never again was Karl Ristikivi to set foot on Estonian soil. The author had become an author-in-exile. This fact was to become the theme, or at least undertone, of many of his works.

But for Ristikivi, exiled in Sweden, the alienation, the loneliness, the nostalgia which can often distort the past, and the pathetically futile hope of return, coupled with the dread of finding his native land changed beyond recognition even if he should succeed, are all themes of his collection of poetry Inimese teekond A Man's Journey;the only one he ever published, but which is regarded by some as one of the highlights of Estonian poetry.

But it was with his novels that Karl Ristikivi made his mark, first as a young man in Estonia and later in Sweden. Between andwhile still living in Tallinn, the author published his Tallinn Trilogy - Tuli ja raud Fire and Iron; ,?

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The first novel deals in a realistic way with the lives of working-class people in Tallinn. Ristikivi wanted to avoid two extremes: Ristikivi's second novel deals with the merchant classes of te 20th century and with a the difficulties of earning enough to keep the family of the protagonist.

But by the third novel, Ristikivi has moved towards a kind of poetic realism, and this time he describes the educated classes of society, starting with the life of a teacher of Latin and his family. His style has now matured and the book shows glimpses of the author's humanism and humour which were to accompany him throughout the rest of his career as a writer.

During the late s, Ristikivi was encouraged and admired by the then grand old man of Estonian literature Anton Hansen Tammsaare.

Ristikivi's second "trilogy" remained incomplete. Inhe published K? The first novel covers the reactions of a Protestant minister to the time between 23rd June and 23rd August These are the last two months of the clergyman's life.

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Both dates are of symbolic significance. The first was a festival dating back towhen President Konstantin P? The second date is when the notorious Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was announced, a pact where Stalin and Hitler in effect divided Europe into two spheres of influence, the Baltic states falling to Stalin. The second novel of this incomplete "trilogy" describes the reactions of ordinary people to what is known in Britain as the "Phoney War", the first year of the Second World War where nothing really happened - hence the title.

The novel begins on 1st September and ends in June Ristikivi is already experimenting with the so-called "puppet-theatre" technique of narration where the various points of views of the main characters occur in consecutive chapters, a technique which the Russian literary theorist Bakhtin would have appreciated.

This is a technique that Ristikivi was to continue to use in several later novels. Both of the above novels had already been sketched out while Ristikivi was still living in Estonia.

Karl Ristikivi was hoping for a happy ending for the trilogy and for Estonia itself, although the books are in fact more of a metaphysical examination of categories such as "memory" and "experience" than a chronicle of events.

But when first the Sovietsand then the Nazis invaded Estonia, and Ristikivi himself was forced to flee his native land in Novemberhe abandoned the last novel of the trilogy. But his following novel, perhaps his most important, was written ten years later after a long pause, and can in some ways be regarded as a sequel to the other two: Night of Souls; and appeared after the author had spent almost ten years in exile.

It is a cross between Kafka Das Schlo?

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As in the magical-realist works of the Flemings Hubert Lampo and Johan Daisne, time is distorted and although the main character enters the house at about a quarter to midnight, and emerges at five past the hour, the scenes, the dialogues and the "hearing" he witnesses, last far longer than the statutory twenty minutes of clock time.

Another magical realist aspect is that nothing supernatural seems to occur, it is just the atmosphere created which is unreal. The novel is divided into three sections. In the first, entitled "The House of the Dead Man", the hero wanders from room to room, speaking to strangers and enters into futile conversations. He meets people whom he thinks he recognises, makes social blunders and is never sure whether he "belongs" or not. The building itself seems to contain a theatre auditorium and numerous rooms of different sizes but is constructed in a strange fashion so that floors and levels are not self-evident.

A great admirer of literature written in English, Ristikivi, like one of his favourite detective novel authors and translator of Dante's "Purgatorio"! Sayers, heads each chapter of this first section of the book with epigraphs by T. The middle section of this novel is an alienation device, typical of certain types of modern literature and not unlike the technique which Ingmar Bergman used at the beginning of his film Persona where a piece of the film reel is shown to remind the audience that all is but a fiction.

In this case, Ristikivi replies to a letter from a reader, the fictional Mrs Agnes Rahumaa, and discusses the novel Night of Souls which he is in the process of writing. The third section, The Seven Witnesses, is a hearing where the hero is implicitly accused of the Seven Deadly Sins as each witness relates some episode of his or her life which somehow exemplifies one of the sins, the gravest of which being acedia from the Greek i. Estonian critics maintain this is a criticism of intellectual, rather than physical, laziness.

The scene is reminiscent of one in the earlier Bergman film Wild Strawberries which was produced infive years after this novel was published. During this time, Bergman knew the Estonian exile pianist, K? The novel is around average book pages long and has been reprinted a number of times, first in what was just still Soviet Estonia in and later, in independent Estonia, as recently as the year and is often regarded as one of the five best Estonian novels of the 20th century.

As far back ashe had visited Amsterdam as well as Switzerland and Italy. Inhe travelled to Mallorca and in was in Italy again. The next year he went to Greece. Inhe seems to have taken two longer trips, one to Egypt and the other to the Adriatic coast of Italy. Inhe visited Turkey and two years later, the USA. It was during the s that the author produced his second complete trilogy which deals with the tragic fate of the medi?

The leitmotif of these books, which have a chronicle-like narrative technique quite unlike Night of Souls, is struggling for a lost cause. But Ristikivi was also continuing to develop his interest in style and structure, now becoming interested in Bach - in a letter to a friend he said that, without getting any illusions of grandeur, he had read Bach's Die Kunst der Fuge with great interest, and drawn his own conclusions about the composer's mathematical exactitude.

During this interview, Ristikivi made the observation that the Crusades had had their pluses and minuses, something which comes out in the trilogy. This is an interesting comment to be made in a decade which showed the rise of anti-imperialist and anti-interventionist thought.

Ristikivi did not seem to be affected by the growing radicalism of the s and was no doubt viewed at the time, even by some of his exile Estonian colleagues, as a mildly reactionary eccentric.

After completing this trilogy, and presumably as light relief, Ristikivi published a grotesque allegory Isle of Miracles. This page novel was even published in Estonia itself, a remarkable achievement during that decade for an exile author from what had become a Soviet republic. In Janu Uibopuu followed in detail the life of a young girl from spring to autumns — she never fulfills her dreams of life after recovering from tuberculosis.

Markuse muutumised examined the loss of idealism and the reality of welfare society. Lademedwas a story about a lonely woman and her difficulties of communing with other. In the scrutiny of the identity problems Uibopuu interweaved observations of the expatriate life.

InUibopuu went back to Finland, where entered the University of Helsinki. After studying theoretical philosophy and psychology, he returned to Sweden. In Uibopuu received his M. Uibopuu was appointed in professor of the University of Lund, retiring in Among his awards were Award of Dr.

He never moved back to his old home country, though he traveled there after the independence. In the s, Neli tuld, Keegi ei kuule meid, Janu, and Markuse muuttumised, were republished in Estonia, where his novels had not been available for decades.

FromUibopuu was married to Tuuli Reijonen, who translated three of his books into Finnish. They lived separate lives, meeting only times a year in Finland or in Sweden. After divorce inhe married the Estonian nurse Malle Loesooga. Uibopuu corresponded with Reijonen until The mood of Uibopuu's short stories and novels is meditative. His characters reveal layer by layer more and more about themselves, but there is always something hidden and unexplained.

In the first pages of Janu the lonely narrator tells that the time of her recovery was the most beautiful time in her life. I was lonely already in my childhood. But she never leaves her home, comparing her life to that of a plant chained on the soil. Oras and Bernard Kangro - For further information: Gummerus, Eesti talu: Toselli serenaad, Mosaiik: Similarkomparative konstruktionen im Finnischen und Estnischen insbesondere in der modernen Schriftsprace, doctoral thesis Lademed, Tosseli serenaad: May be used for non-commercial purposes.

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