Why we shouldn’t demonize formula feeding - Harvard Health Blog - Harvard Health Publishing
Formula Feeding Is A Healthy Way To Feed Babies Like any relationship, if it's not working out for one person, it's not working out period. The feeding relationship is like any other relationship between a parent and child D. While infant formula contains vitamin D, babies may not always take in the. Tips to help build emotional closeness when bottle feeding baby. whichever way a baby feeds does not dictate the intensity or quality of the relationship become less likely to experience depression and other mental health related issues.
The mean score was 63 out of possible points. The authors found that routine practices in many maternity hospitals are not supportive of breastfeeding. Obstetricians can help close this quality gap by supporting efforts to eliminate outdated practices and providing evidence-based support for breastfeeding. For example, a Cochrane review of randomized trials demonstrated that infants placed skin-to-skin at delivery breastfeed 42 days longer than infants who are swaddled in the first hour of life.
The alert, healthy newborn infant is capable of latching on to a breast without specific assistance within the first hour after birth. Dry the infant, assign Apgar scores, and perform the initial physical assessment while the infant is with the mother.
The mother is an optimal heat source for the infant. Delay weighing, measuring, bathing, needle-sticks, and eye prophylaxis until after the first feeding is completed. Infants affected by maternal medications may require assistance for effective latch-on.
Except under unusual circumstances, the newborn infant should remain with the mother throughout the recovery period. Use LactMed as a reference for evidence-based reviews of medication safety. Sample available at http: Open in a separate window Conclusions Formula feeding is associated with adverse health outcomes for both mothers and infants, ranging from infectious morbidity to chronic disease.
Given the compelling evidence for differences in health outcomes, breastfeeding should be acknowledged as the biologic norm for infant feeding. Physician counseling, office, and hospital practices should be aligned to ensure that the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad has the best chance for a long, successful breastfeeding experience. Main Points Research suggests that breastfeeding is a key modifiable risk factor for disease for both mothers and infants.
Current guidelines recommend exclusive breastfeeding for a minimum of 6 months up to the first 2 years of life, although breastfeeding in the United States falls far short of these recommendations. Data suggest that variations in hospital practices account for disparities in breastfeeding duration. Improvements in the quality of antenatal and perinatal support could have a substantial impact on mother and infant health.
In addition, immune factors in milk provide protection against infections such as H influenzae, S pneumoniae, V cholerae, E coli, and rotavirus. Not breastfeeding is associated with health risks for both mothers and infants. Epidemiologic data suggest that women who do not breastfeed face higher risk of breast and ovarian cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Patient perception of clinician opinion is directly associated with breastfeeding duration.
The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative has been widely implemented throughout the world, reaching more than 15, maternity hospitals in countries, although routine practices in many maternity hospitals are not supportive of breastfeeding.
Obstetricians who counsel on breastfeeding can help eliminate outdated practices and provide evidence-based support on behalf of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries.
Breastfed babies show more challenging temperaments, study finds | Life and style | The Guardian
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, authors. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. American Academy of Family Physicians, authors. Breastfeeding, family physicians supporting Position Paper [Accessed June 10, ]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, authors. Breastfeeding-related maternity practices at hospitals and birth centers-United States, Breast is no longer best: The benefits of breastfeeding or the harm of formula feeding? J Paediatr Child Health.
Changes in public attitudes toward breastfeeding in the United States, — J Am Diet Assoc. Bioactive factors in human milk. Pediatr Clin North Am. IgA antibodies in human milk: Glycoproteins of the human milk fat globule in the protection of the breast-fed infant against infections.
Protective function of proteins and lipids in human milk.
The Risks of Not Breastfeeding for Mothers and Infants
Breastfeeding and the risk of hospitalization for respiratory disease in infancy: Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Breast milk and the risk of opportunistic infection in infancy in industrialized and non-industrialized settings.
Necrotising enterocolitis hospitalisations among neonates in the United States. Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: World Health Organization; Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: Breastfeeding and childhood obesity-a systematic review.
Does breastfeeding influence risk of type 2 diabetes in later life? A quantitative analysis of published evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. Effect of breast feeding in infancy on blood pressure in later life: Breastfeeding in infancy and blood pressure in later life: Infant feeding and blood cholesterol: Ghrelin, leptin and the neurometabolic axis of breastfed and formula-fed infants.
Presence of obestatin in breast milk: Breast-feeding and cognitive development: A critical evaluation of the evidence on the association between type of infant feeding and cognitive development.
How good is the evidence linking breastfeeding and intelligence? Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six months on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: Breast-feeding and child cognitive development: Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.
The role of breastfeeding in sudden infant death syndrome. The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: Chen A, Rogan WJ. Breastfeeding and the risk of postneonatal death in the United States.
Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy. The role of gut-associated lymphoid tissues and mucosal defence. Effect of a fermented formula on thymus size and stool pH in healthy term infants.
Breastfed babies show more challenging temperaments, study finds
Breast-feeding and the risk of bronchial asthma in childhood: Breast-feeding and the onset of atopic dermatitis in childhood: J Am Acad Dermatol.
A meta-analysis of infant diet and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A critical overview of the clinical literature. Dietary manipulation of beta cell autoimmunity in infants at increased risk of type 1 diabetes: Speculations on the cause of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Breast-feeding and the risk of childhood leukemia: Kvale G, Heuch I. Lactation and cancer risk: J Epidemiol Community Health. Prospective assessment of breastfeeding and breast cancer incidence among 89, women.
- The Risks of Not Breastfeeding for Mothers and Infants
- How to create a special bond when bottle feeding your baby
Breastfeeding and risk of breast cancer: History of breast-feeding in relation to breast cancer risk: J Natl Cancer Inst. Lactation and risk of breast cancer in a cohort of US women. Breastfeeding and reduced risk of breast cancer in an Icelandic cohort study. Effect of lifetime lactation on breast cancer risk: Breast cancer and breastfeeding: Lactation and incidence of premenopausal breast cancer: Breastfeeding and risk of ovarian cancer in two prospective cohorts.
Conditions associated with antibodies against the tumor-associated antigen MUC1 and their relationship to risk for ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Maternal weight-loss patterns during prolonged lactation. Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Duration of lactation and incidence of myocardial infarction in middle to late adulthood. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Duration of lactation and risk factors for maternal cardiovascular disease.
Do perceived attitudes of physicians and hospital staff affect breastfeeding decisions? Office prenatal formula advertising and its effect on breast-feeding patterns. Initiation of human lactation: And if you listen to the claims of individual manufactures they are at pains to convince consumers that their product is superior.
But the honest truth is this; if an infant formula is commercially available in Australia and it can be bought from a supermarket or pharmacy shelf, then it is suitable to feed to an infant. The marketing and advertising of formulas within Australia is governed by what is known as The MAIF Agreement — The Marketing of Infant Formulas in Australiawhich sets the guidelines and specific criteria which manufacturers need to adhere to.
But I really wanted to breastfeed! For mothers who would have preferred to breastfeed, the need to change over to formula feeding can take some getting used to. When stopping breastfeeding earlier than they may have chosen to, many mothers go through a type of grieving process. This is due to having to let go of their ideals and hopes to breastfeed their baby. How long this emotional transition takes is highly individual and really depends on the specific circumstances.
But it is true to say that time, talking and reflection do help build a bridge when it comes to the psychological aspects of stopping breastfeeding. When it is clear that the baby is thriving and seems perfectly fine about bottle feedingthen this certainly helps as well. The support of other mothers and family members who bottle fed can also be immensely useful. After breastfeeding has stopped, many mothers worry that the close emotional bond they shared with their baby will end as well.
They also wonder how they can recreate those special moments and physical closeness which are an intrinsic part of breastfeeding. As is the case with many other concerns and worries, the very fact that they are thought about in the first place is an indication that all will be fine.
Investing the energy into building and sustaining a good relationship with your baby is based on more than the way they are feeding and what they are feeding on. We all want to be wonderful mothers and have ideals which we badly want to achieve.
But life sometimes gets in the way and for all sorts of reasons, we need to adapt and change. Going through the processes involved in these transitions helps to build our resilience and coping abilities and in turn, we become less likely to experience depression and other mental health related issues. The ability to adapt, accept, refocus and be content with our situations as well as doing what we have to do, are positive qualities.
In turn, parents then role model these attributes to their children.
Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding
What can I do to help build emotional closeness with my bottle fed baby? Make sure you hold your baby for each and every feed. Direct the bottle teat to their mouth and as they start sucking, reposition them so they are facing upwards Skin to skin contact can be done when bottle feeding in the same way as when breastfeeding.