Jun 19, Boko Haram achieved worldwide infamy after it kidnapped female high The ISIS-linked sect is suspected of being responsible for around 30, from the Council on Foreign Relations, a Washington-based think tank. Jan 6, The Islamic State faction of Boko Haram says it was responsible for a late December attack on Nigerian army barracks, claiming it killed nine. Feb 24, The relationship, if any, between Nigeria's Boko Haram and ISIS is a question that vexes the policy community. If there is one, it would support.
Embassy in Abuja in Novemberhas been published on WikiLeaks: Security remained a concern in Borno, with residents expressing concern about importation of arms and exchanges of religious messages across porous international borders. According to the leaked document, there were reports that Yusuf's deputy had survived, and audio tapes were believed to be in circulation in which Boko Haram threatened future attacks.
Nevertheless, many observers did not anticipate imminent bloodshed. Security in Borno was downgraded.
Borno government official Alhaji Boguma believed that the state deserved praise from the international community for ending the conflict in such a short time, and that the "wave of fundamentalism" had been "crushed". Bauchi prison break In Septemberhaving regrouped under their new leader, Boko Haram broke of its members out of prison in Bauchi along with over other prisoners and went on to launch attacks in several areas of northern Nigeria. A spokesman claiming responsibility for the attack, in which 11 UN staff members died as well as 12 others, with more than injured, warned of future planned attacks on U.
Speaking soon after the U.
A Jihadi Takeover Bid in Nigeria? The Evolving Relationship between Boko Haram and al-Qa`ida
They have attacked politicians, religious leaders, security forces and civilian targets. The tactic of suicide bombingused in the two attacks in the capital on the police and UN headquarters, was new to Nigeria.
Nigerian presidential election, Within hours of Goodluck Jonathan 's presidential inauguration in MayBoko Haram carried out a series of bombings in BauchiZaria and Abuja. The most successful of these was the attack on the army barracks in Bauchi. A spokesman for the group told BBC Hausa that the attack had been carried out, as a test of loyalty, by serving members of the military hoping to join the group.
This charge was later refuted by an army spokesman who claimed: However, on 8 January the president would announce that Boko Haram had in reality infiltrated both the army and the police, as well as the executive, parliamentary and legislative branches of government.
Boko Haram's spokesman also claimed responsibility for the killing outside his home in Maiduguri of the politician Abba Anas Ibn Umar Garbai, the younger brother of the Shehu of Borno, who was the second most prominent Muslim in the country after the Sultan of Sokoto.
Meanwhile, the trail of massacres continued relentlessly, apparently leading the country towards civil war. By the end ofthese conflicting strategies led observers to question the group's cohesion; comparisons were drawn with the diverse motivations of the militant factions of the oil-rich Niger Delta.
Adding to the confusion, in November the State Security Service announced that four criminal syndicates were operating under the name Boko Haram. Five officers were arrested for Yusuf's murder, which had no noticeable effect on the level of unrest. Opportunities for criminal enterprise flourished. Hundreds of police were dead and more than 60 police stations had been attacked by mid Sectarian riots engulfed the twelve northern states of the country during the three days following the election, leaving more than dead and 65, displaced.
The subsequent campaign of violence by Boko Haram culminated in a string of bombings across the country on Christmas Day. In the outskirts of Abuja, 37 died in a church that had its roof blown off.
One resident commented, "Cars were in flames and bodies littered everywhere", a phrase commonly repeated in international press reports about the bombings. Similar Christmas events had been reported in previous years. Jonathan declared a state of emergency on New Year's Eve in local government areas of Jos, Borno, Yobe and Niger and closed the international border in the north-east.
The state of emergency would usher in an intensification of violence. The opening three weeks of accounted for more than half of the death total of the preceding year. Two days after the state of emergency was declared, Boko Haram released an ultimatum to southern Nigerians living in the north, giving them three days to leave. Three days later they began a series of mostly small-scale attacks on Christians and members of the Igbo ethnic group, causing hundreds to flee.
In Kano, on 20 January, they carried out by far their most deadly action yet, an assault on police buildings, killing One of the victims was a TV reporter. The attacks included a combined use of car bombs, suicide bombers and IEDs, supported by uniformed gunmen.
HRW stated "Boko Haram should immediately cease all attacks, and threats of attacks, that cause loss of life, injury, and destruction of property. The Nigerian government should take urgent measures to address the human rights abuses that have helped fuel the violent militancy".
Boko Haram - Wikipedia
On October 9, witnesses in Maiduguri claimed members of the JTF "Restore Order" [a vigilante group], based in Maiduguri, went on a killing spree after a suspected Boko Haram bomb killed an officer. Media reported the JTF killed 20 to 45 civilians and razed 50 to houses in the neighborhood.
The JTF commander in Maiduguri denied the allegations. The army claimed it dismissed some officers from the military as a result of alleged abuses committed in Maiduguri, but there were no known formal prosecutions in Maiduguri by year's end. From a geographical perspective, the Islamist sect has expanded its footprint outside of its strongholds in northeastern Nigeria into the wider Lake Chad region. It cannot be said for certain whether links between the two groups were formally solidified.
This was highlighted in August when a Boko Haram suicide bomber drove his explosive-laden vehicle into the offices of the United Nations building in the Garki district of Abuja, killing 23 people and wounding 76 others. However, it would certainly not be the last. Addressing a conference focusing on security challenges in Mali and the Sahel in NovemberFabius claimed that his military had acquired documentary evidence detailing the training of Boko Haram militants within northern Mali.
Days before the March Malian coup, a British national, Chris McManus, and an Italian, Franco Lamolinara, were executed by their kidnappers in the northwestern Nigerian town of Sokoto during a failed joint rescue operation by the British and Nigerian militaries. On May 23 that year, two simultaneous militant incursions took place at a military base and French-operated uranium mine in the respective Nigerien towns of Agadez and Arlit.
In a pre-recorded video, one of the future attackers identified himself as Abu Ali al-Nigiri and also revealed his membership in Ansaru. In claiming the kidnapping, Boko Haram noted that the abduction was carried out with the assistance of Ansaru, suggesting that some form of cooperation between the factions was taking place. Both groups favor the targeting of state and foreign interestsk while sparing Muslim civilians and are seemingly adept at kidnapping operations.
In both Nigeria and the wider West African region, the jihadi landscape remains both dynamic and fluid with allegiances broken as often as they are being made. Conclusion In its near decade-long insurgency, Boko Haram has evolved from a Nigerian-centric grassroots Islamist extremist organization to an affiliate of the Islamic State with an operational footprint spanning an entire region.