Understanding your Audience
Being aware of the writer's purpose when you read helps you evaluate how .. Bush begins by stroking his audience and attempting to stack the cards in his own favor. . To show the relationship of two areas of study and to show the light one. What was, and is, this author's conception of his audience for the book? Though the relationship of the audience to the author has been explored over the . One technique that effective writers use is to begin a fresh paragraph for each . an appropriate relationship with your audience, making them more receptive to.
We can see that trend most clearly in the use of illustrations in the work intended for the difference audiences. Not only are there fewer illustrations in works intended for a general audience, the captions are sometimes meaningless, meant instead to be cute or entertaining. See for example the photo and caption of Cutta Cutta in Boyle's article. This is not a rule, however. Compare the caption under the first photo in Brunfiel's article.
In works intended for an educated, non-specialist audience, we see yet more detail, more information. In works for a specialist, professional audience, the captions are crucial to the overall information within the work. Notice too that Reis, et al. That is a hallmark of scholarly writing. Additional Contrasts between Scholarly Texts and the Others Citations, of course, are the most obvious additional feature of writing for a specialist, professional audience.
However, citations are found in writing for an educated, non-specialist audience occasionally as well. As we research a subject ourselves, these citation become a valuable source for finding more relevant information in our own research subject.
An Authors Relationship with His Audience: The Earliest Autobiographical Work of a Local Malay
Finally, as writers, we can appreciate the value citations add to the work: In addition to citations, the next most obvious contrast between writing for a specialist, professional audience and the others is the prevalence of summary.
Summary, in scholarly writing, is most often used as part of a literature review section within the new research. Otherwise, summary rarely occurs. That explains why you may find it difficult to write an abstract of articles written for general or educated, non-specialist audiences: Thirdly, work written for a general audience usually contains some explanation of the work's relevance to the world.
Notice how the summary retains the key points made by the writers of the original report but omits most of the statistical data. Summaries need not contain all the specific facts and figures in the original document; they provide only an overview of the essential information. Analysis Paragraphs An analysis A purpose for writing that separates the individual points in a piece of writing and studies how the points relate to one another.
The analysis of simple table salt, for example, would require a deconstruction of its parts—the elements sodium Na and chloride Cl. Then, scientists would study how the two elements interact to create the compound NaCl, or sodium chloride, which is also called simple table salt.
Analysis is not limited to the sciences, of course. An analysis paragraph in academic writing fulfills the same purpose. Instead of deconstructing compounds, academic analysis paragraphs typically deconstruct documents.
An analysis takes apart a primary source an essay, a book, an article, etc. It communicates the main points of the document by examining individual points and identifying how the points relate to one another. Notice how the analysis does not simply repeat information from the original report, but considers how the points within the report relate to one another. By doing this, the student uncovers a discrepancy between the points that are backed up by statistics and those that require additional information.
Analyzing a document involves a close examination of each of the individual parts and how they work together. Synthesis Paragraphs A synthesis A purpose for writing that considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links them together to create a new point. Consider the electronic musical instrument aptly named the synthesizer. It looks like a simple keyboard but displays a dashboard of switches, buttons, and levers.
With the flip of a few switches, a musician may combine the distinct sounds of a piano, a flute, or a guitar—or any other combination of instruments—to create a new sound. The purpose of the synthesizer is to blend together the notes from individual instruments to form new, unique notes. The purpose of an academic synthesis is to blend individual documents into a new document. An academic synthesis paragraph considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links the main points together to create a new point, one not replicated in either document.
Notice how the synthesis paragraphs consider each source and use information from each to create a new thesis. A good synthesis does not repeat information; the writer uses a variety of sources to create a new idea. Evaluations in everyday experiences are often not only dictated by set standards but also influenced by opinion and prior knowledge.
The purpose of the evaluation is to determine how well the employee performs at his or her job. An academic evaluation communicates your opinion, and its justifications, about a document or a topic of discussion.
The Relationship of Author to Audience (Theory)
Evaluations are influenced by your reading of the document, your prior knowledge, and your prior experience with the topic or issue. Because an evaluation incorporates your point of view and reasons for your point of view, it typically requires more critical thinking and a combination of summary, analysis, and synthesis skills. Thus evaluation paragraphs often follow summary, analysis, and synthesis paragraphs.
Evaluating a document requires prior knowledge that is often based on additional research. Tip When reviewing directions for assignments, look for the verbs summarize, analyze, synthesize, or evaluate.
These words will cue you on how to complete the assignment because you will know its exact purpose. Exercise 1 Read the following paragraphs about four films and then identify the purpose of each paragraph. This film could easily have been cut down to less than two hours. By the final scene, I noticed that most of my fellow moviegoers were snoozing in their seats and were barely paying attention to what was happening on screen.
Although the director sticks diligently to the book, he tries too hard to cram in all the action, which is just too ambitious for such a detail-oriented story.
If you want my advice, read the book and give the movie a miss. During the opening scene, we learn that the character Laura is adopted and that she has spent the past three years desperately trying to track down her real parents. Having exhausted all the usual options—adoption agencies, online searches, family trees, and so on—she is on the verge of giving up when she meets a stranger on a bus.
The chance encounter leads to a complicated chain of events that ultimately result in Laura getting her lifelong wish. But is it really what she wants? Throughout the rest of the film, Laura discovers that sometimes the past is best left where it belongs.
To create the feeling of being gripped in a vice, the director, May Lee, uses a variety of elements to gradually increase the tension. The creepy, haunting melody that subtly enhances the earlier scenes becomes ever more insistent, rising to a disturbing crescendo toward the end of the movie. The desperation of the actors, combined with the claustrophobic atmosphere and tight camera angles create a realistic firestorm, from which there is little hope of escape.
Walking out of the theater at the end feels like staggering out of a Roman dungeon. The scene in which Campbell and his fellow prisoners assist the guards in shutting down the riot immediately strikes the viewer as unrealistic. Based on the recent reports on prison riots in both Detroit and California, it seems highly unlikely that a posse of hardened criminals will intentionally help their captors at the risk of inciting future revenge from other inmates.
Instead, both news reports and psychological studies indicate that prisoners who do not actively participate in a riot will go back to their cells and avoid conflict altogether. Examples of this lack of attention to detail occur throughout the film, making it almost unbearable to watch.
Collaboration Share with a classmate and compare your answers. Writing at Work Thinking about the purpose of writing a report in the workplace can help focus and structure the document. A summary should provide colleagues with a factual overview of your findings without going into too much specific detail. In contrast, an evaluation should include your personal opinion, along with supporting evidence, research, or examples to back it up. Listen for words such as summarize, analyze, synthesize, or evaluate when your boss asks you to complete a report to help determine a purpose for writing.
Exercise 2 Consider the essay most recently assigned to you. Identify the most effective academic purpose for the assignment.
Weeks before the big day, you spend time creating and rehearsing the presentation. You must make important, careful decisions not only about the content but also about your delivery. Will the presentation require technology to project figures and charts?
Should the presentation define important words, or will the executives already know the terms? Should you wear your suit and dress shirt? The answers to these questions will help you develop an appropriate relationship with your audience, making them more receptive to your message.
Now imagine you must explain the same business concepts from your presentation to a group of high school students.
Those important questions you previously answered may now require different answers. The figures and charts may be too sophisticated, and the terms will certainly require definitions. You may even reconsider your outfit and sport a more casual look. Because the audience has shifted, your presentation and delivery will shift as well to create a new relationship with the new audience.
In these two situations, the audience—the individuals who will watch and listen to the presentation—plays a role in the development of presentation. As you prepare the presentation, you visualize the audience to anticipate their expectations and reactions.
Understanding Your Audience
What you imagine affects the information you choose to present and how you will present it. Then, during the presentation, you meet the audience in person and discover immediately how well you perform. Although the audience for writing assignments—your readers—may not appear in person, they play an equally vital role. In fact, thinking about audience has become so common that you may not even detect the audience-driven decisions. For example, you update your status on a social networking site with the awareness of who will digitally follow the post.
If you want to brag about a good grade, you may write the post to please family members. Even at work, you send e-mails with an awareness of an unintended receiver who could intercept the message.