Research questions, hypotheses and objectives
A 2-sided hypothesis states that there is a difference between the Note that the study objective is an active statement about how the study is going to answer. Learning Objectives: Define research Provide examples of research questions and research hypotheses. Comparative Questions – Aim to examine the difference between two or more groups in relation to one or more variables. It is always written as a statement and should be developed before any data is collected. Kindly clarify the links between "objectives and questions" of research study, are nailed down, most of the research questions can rephrase into hypotheses. . must emanate from the statement of the problem, the objectives of a research.
The alternate hypothesis would be that there is a difference in mean functional outcome between these techniques. At the end of the study, the null hypothesis is then tested statistically.
If the findings of the study are not statistically significant i. In other words, hypothesis testing confirms or refutes the statement that the observed findings did not occur by chance alone but rather occurred because there was a true difference in outcomes between these surgical procedures.
The concept of statistical hypothesis testing is complex, and the details are beyond the scope of this article. Another important concept inherent in hypothesis testing is whether the hypotheses will be 1-sided or 2-sided. A 2-sided hypothesis states that there is a difference between the experimental group and the control group, but it does not specify in advance the expected direction of the difference.
For example, we asked whether there is there an improvement in outcomes with computer-assisted surgery or whether the outcomes worse with computer-assisted surgery. We presented a 2-sided test in the above example because we did not specify the direction of the difference. A 1-sided hypothesis states a specific direction e. A 2-sided hypothesis should be used unless there is a good justification for using a 1-sided hypothesis.
Whereas the investigators may state the hypothesis as being 1-sided there is an improvement with treatmentthe study and investigators must adhere to the concept of clinical equipoise.
According to this principle, a clinical or surgical trial is ethical only if the expert community is uncertain about the relative therapeutic merits of the experimental and control groups being evaluated.
Acting on the principles of appropriate hypothesis development, the study can then confidently proceed to the development of the research objective.Formulating research question, hypothesis and objectives
Research objective The primary objective should be coupled with the hypothesis of the study. Study objectives define the specific aims of the study and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research protocol. Note that the study objective is an active statement about how the study is going to answer the specific research question. Objectives can and often do state exactly which outcome measures are going to be used within their statements.
They are important because they not only help guide the development of the protocol and design of study but also play a role in sample size calculations and determining the power of the study.
For example, the most methodologically sound randomized controlled trial comparing 2 techniques of distal radial fixation would have little or no clinical impact if the primary objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on intraoperative fluoroscopy time.
Writing Research Questions and Hypotheses - Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching
However, if the objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on patient functional outcome at 1 year, this would have a much more significant impact on clinical decision-making. Second, more meaningful surgeon—patient discussions could ensue, incorporating patient values and preferences with the results from this study.
The following is an example from the literature about the relation between the research question, hypothesis and study objectives: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for chronic patellar tendinopathy: How does low-intensity pulsed ultrasound LIPUS compare with a placebo device in managing the symptoms of skeletally mature patients with patellar tendinopathy?
Conclusion The development of the research question is the most important aspect of a research project. A research project can fail if the objectives and hypothesis are poorly focused and underdeveloped.
Useful tips for surgical researchers are provided in Box 3.
Designing and developing an appropriate and relevant research question, hypothesis and objectives can be a difficult task. How often do college-aged students use Twitter? Comparative Questions — Aim to examine the difference between two or more groups in relation to one or more variables. What is the difference in caloric intake of high school girls and boys?
Research questions, hypotheses and objectives
The type of research question will influence the research design. Once data has been collected, it will be analyzed and conclusions can be made. It is predictive in nature and typically used when significant knowledge already exists on the subject which allows the prediction to be made.
Data is then collected, analyzed, and used to support or negate the hypothesis, arriving at a definite conclusion at the end of the research. It is always written as a statement and should be developed before any data is collected. A complete hypothesis should include: Commonly used in quantitative research, but not qualitative research which often seeks answers to open-ended questions. A company wellness program will decrease the number sick days claimed by employees. Consuming vitamin C supplements will reduce the incidence of the common cold in teenagers.
The following video, Hypotheses vs. Research Questions, discusses how to choose whether to use a hypothesis or a question when creating a research project. It provides a definitions, a comparison of the two, and examples of each.
How to choose a good scientific problem. Molecular Cell, 35, What makes for good research? Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative.
Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Handbook in research and evaluation. Real world research Vol.