Студопедия — LEXICOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS
Borderline between lexicology and morphology – basic concepts. Morpheme is a arising in the main from a distinction between language as arrangement and language as process. (1) Leonard Other basic terms and relations: ROOT. Morphology is one of the fields of linguistics which studies the internal structure of words but words as units in the lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology. Can you give a few What is the exact difference between them??. Morphology is the description given to the structure of a languages morphemes Lexicology is the branch of linguistics that deals with the study of words, this may also the link between Semantics and Lexicology is called Lexical Semantics.
Main approaches to the study of lexical units. The term "lexicology" is comprised of two Greek morphemes: Thus the literal meaning of the term "lexicology" is "the study of the word".
Lexicology as a branch of linguistics studies the vocabulary of a language as a system of lexical units, primarily words. Another term for vocabulary is "word-stock", i. Traditionally, vocabulary units include words, e.
The English vocabulary is enormous, it includes more than Distinction is made between general and special lexicology. General lexicology is a part of general linguistics, it studies universal features of vocabularies of all or most languages, Special lexicology is concerned with the vocabulary of a particular language, e. Russian, English, French, etc.
Historical lexicology studies the origin and development of vocabulary as well as its separate units.
LEXICOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS
Descriptive lexicology deals with the vocabulary of a given language at a particular stage of its development, e. Lexicology is closely connected with other branches of linguistics, such as phonetics, grammar, stylistics, which also study words from various angles.
Lexicology is connected with Phonetics because the word is a two-facet unit which has both a form and meaning. Thus, the word can be defined as a series of sounds making up its form, and phonetics is concerned among other things with the study of the sound-form of words.
The link between phonetics and lexicology is based on the following: Lexicology is linked with Grammar because the word is used in speech as a grammatical unit, in certain grammatical forms and functions. Grammar studies means of expressing grammatical relations between words in speech and patterns after which words are combined into word-groups and sentences.
The connection between lexicology and grammar is seen in the following: This is called lexicalization of grammatical forms, e. A word in one meaning may function as a notional word and in another as a form word, e.
Person and number are categories that can be used to define paradigms in English, because English has grammatical agreement rules that require the verb in a sentence to appear in an inflectional form that matches the person and number of the subject.
Morphology and Lexicology ??? [Arşiv] - dilFORUM
Therefore, the syntactic rules of English care about the difference between dog and dogs, because the choice between these two forms determines which form of the verb is used. However, no syntactic rule for the difference between dog and dog catcher, or dependent and independent.
The first two are nouns and the second two are adjectives. An important difference between inflection and word formation is that inflected word forms of lexemes are organized into paradigms that are defined by the requirements of syntactic rules, and there are no corresponding syntactic rules for word formation. The relationship between syntax and morphology is called "morphosyntax" and concerns itself with inflection and paradigms, not with word formation or compounding.
Allomorphy[ edit ] Above, morphological rules are described as analogies between word forms: In this case, the analogy applies both to the form of the words and to their meaning: One of the largest sources of complexity in morphology is that this one-to-one correspondence between meaning and form scarcely applies to every case in the language.
Even cases regarded as regular, such as -s, are not so simple; the -s in dogs is not pronounced the same way as the -s in cats; and, in plurals such as dishes, a vowel is added before the -s.
These cases, where the same distinction is effected by alternative forms of a "word", constitute allomorphy. Phonological rules constrain which sounds can appear next to each other in a language, and morphological rules, when applied blindly, would often violate phonological rules, by resulting in sound sequences that are prohibited in the language in question. Similar rules apply to the pronunciation of the -s in dogs and cats: Lexical morphology[ edit ] Lexical morphology is the branch of morphology that deals with the lexiconwhich, morphologically conceived, is the collection of lexemes in a language.
As such, it concerns itself primarily with word formation: Models[ edit ] There are three principal approaches to morphology and each tries to capture the distinctions above in different ways: Morpheme-based morphology, which makes use of an item-and-arrangement approach. Lexeme-based morphology, which normally makes use of an item-and-process approach. Word-based morphology, which normally makes use of a word-and-paradigm approach.
While the associations indicated between the concepts in each item in that list are very strong, they are not absolute.
Morpheme-based morphology[ edit ] Morpheme-based morphology tree of the word "independently" In morpheme-based morphology, word forms are analyzed as arrangements of morphemes. A morpheme is defined as the minimal meaningful unit of a language. In a word such as independently, the morphemes are said to be in- depend, -ent, and ly; depend is the root and the other morphemes are, in this case, derivational affixes.
More recent and sophisticated approaches, such as distributed morphologyseek to maintain the idea of the morpheme while accommodating non-concatenated, analogical, and other processes that have proven problematic for item-and-arrangement theories and similar approaches.
Morphology (linguistics) - Wikipedia
Morpheme-based morphology presumes three basic axioms: Roots and affixes have the same status as morphemes. As morphemes, they are dualistic signs, since they have both phonological form and meaning. Bloomfield's "lexical morpheme" hypothesis: Morpheme-based morphology comes in two flavours, one Bloomfieldian  and one Hockettian.
For him, there is a morpheme plural using allomorphs such as -s, -en and -ren. Within much morpheme-based morphological theory, the two views are mixed in unsystematic ways so a writer may refer to "the morpheme plural" and "the morpheme -s" in the same sentence.
Lexeme-based morphology[ edit ] Lexeme-based morphology usually takes what is called an item-and-process approach.
- Introduction to Morphology and lexicology Unit 1: What is lexicology?
Instead of analyzing a word form as a set of morphemes arranged in sequence, a word form is said to be the result of applying rules that alter a word-form or stem in order to produce a new one.
An inflectional rule takes a stem, changes it as is required by the rule, and outputs a word form; a derivational rule takes a stem, changes it as per its own requirements, and outputs a derived stem; a compounding rule takes word forms, and similarly outputs a compound stem.What is Morphology? - Definition of Morphology
Word-based morphology[ edit ] Word-based morphology is usually a word-and-paradigm approach.