Hamas and Fatah: How are the two groups different? | Palestine | Al Jazeera
Sep 21, CAIRO – 21 September Egypt Today showcases a chronology of the conflict history between Fatah and Hamas, Palestine's two main. The Fatah–Hamas conflict also referred to as the Palestinian Civil War was a conflict between Views. Read · View source · View history. After a brief attempt at a unity government under Hamas Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh, the conflict between the Hamas and Fatah (the secular nationalist.
From Gaza it had been argued that being inside the PLC would prevent Fatah from giving away the Palestinian birthright. Hamas's politburo acknowledged that boycotting the PLC elections would be at odds with the will of the populace. One significant element was the reform of the PLO, opening up the organization to the participation of the Islamist organizations Hamas and Islamic Jihad, as stated in Article 5 of the agreement: Those gathered agreed to develop the Palestine Liberation Organization on bases that will be settled upon in order to include all the Palestinian powers and factions, as the organization is the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.
To do this, it has been agreed upon to form a committee to define these bases, and the committee will be made up of the president of the National Council, the members of the PLO's Executive Committee, the secretaries general of all Palestinian factions and independent national personalities.
The president of the Executive Committee will convene this committee. The first was the one formed in by the Arab League, the second was the one controlled by Fatah sinceand the third was this one, in which Fatah lost its hegemony, Meshal contended.
Avoiding strife despite deep political disagreement was the opposite approach to the one pursued during the years preceding the foundation of Hamas.
For Hamas, cultural differences mattered less than for its predecessor, the Muslim Brotherhood. In spite of its uncompromising charter, Hamas moved towards a less ideologically rigid and, over the years, increasingly pragmatic political relationship with the PLO.
It was therefore a significant change of political orientation when, following its victories in the local elections of and the PLC elections ofHamas reconsidered its demand for PLO reforms. Instead of calling for the PLO to change its program as a prerequisite for Hamas to join, Hamas wanted democratic elections, in accordance with the PLO constitution.
They agreed that the PLO should "adopt the proportional representation electoral system for electing members of the PNC taking into account the representation of all Palestinian communities.
Q&A: Hamas and Fatah
Article 8 of the platform stated: The PLO is the institution that built up the struggle that we are proud of, and we wish to develop and reform it through consultation and dialogue.
In this regard, we stress the need to speed up the implementation of the necessary measures to complete the restructuring of the PLO, thus allowing other Palestinian factions to join it on sound democratic foundations that permit political partnership, the PLO being the umbrella for all Palestinians at home and in the diaspora. Why should Hamas make obstacles before joining? Awad emphasized that elections had to come first, "and then to change, from inside.
We now want to have elections and we will respect the results of elections. We believe that, if we took the step to reform the PLO, that means an elected council, an elected leadership, a leadership which can be held responsible so you will have a democratic process inside the Palestinian nation.
You will have an elected leader who could be questioned all the time, so you cannot make decisions just because of what Hamas needs or what Fatah needs, but according to what the people need. Its demand that the PLO change its charter ahead of Hamas's participation was abandoned. This was his responsibility according to the agreement. Hamas was asking for the same ratio outside, reflecting the Hamas majority in the PLC elections, so probably also that was a factor in delaying an agreement.
In every national movement there are fifth columns, traitors, call them as you wish. We believe that Hamas is one stratum of the Palestinian people, and irrespective of our evaluation of their program, some of us, I included, do not believe that they have a national agenda.
Fatah–Hamas conflict - Wikipedia
They want to build, if not an Islamic state Of course they quote popular slogans, but theirs is not parallel to our goal, which is freedom of our country from occupation, and to have a pluralistic and democratic state that respects the other. That is the major difference between our programs. So it is not compatible with the PLO? According to the Cairo agreement, legislative, presidential and PNC elections should have been conducted within a year. There were clearly a few obstacles to arranging elections to the PNC for all Palestinians inside and outside Palestine.
Arranging elections in the West Bank is problematic as long as Hamas's candidates are arrested by Israel. However, for movements seeking to liberate Palestine, these obstacles are not insurmountable if the political will to implement the agreement is present.
As for elections in the West Bank, a proportional system could be used, while Palestinian delegates from Syria and Jordan could be selected rather than elected to the PNC, according to Fatah leader Nabil Shaath. As elections have not yet been held, an increasing portion of the Palestinian population is blaming Hamas in Gaza for the lack of progress. Veteran Hamas leader Ahmed Yousef in Gaza denied that Hamas's hegemony over Gaza was an asset that its members refused to relinquish: You will hear this from people in Fatah, but I assure you that we are serious about ending the division and going to elections and unify our people.
It is not our ambition or ultimate goal to have Gaza. Our national Islamic project is totally different. Our goal is to have our own Palestinian State with unified people and to guarantee the Right of Return of our people from the diaspora.
This is our goal, it is not just to stick with Gaza and to be under siege and do nothing. Later that year the PA began to take over, but, as it was unable to take full control, it began to cut its funding for the Gaza Strip in Conflict with Israel After Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip inIsrael declared the Gaza Strip under Hamas a hostile entity and approved a series of sanctions that included power cuts, heavily restricted imports, and border closures.
Hamas attacks on Israel continued, as did Israeli attacks on the Gaza Strip. After months of negotiations, in June Israel and Hamas agreed to implement a truce scheduled to last six months; however, the truce was threatened shortly thereafter as each accused the other of violations, which escalated in the last months of the agreement.
On December 19 the truce officially expired amid accusations of violations on both sides. Broader hostilities erupted shortly thereafter as Israel, responding to sustained rocket fire, mounted a series of air strikes across the region—among the strongest in years—meant to target Hamas.
After a week of air strikes, Israeli forces initiated a ground campaign into the Gaza Strip amid calls from the international community for a cease-fire. Following more than three weeks of hostilities—in which perhaps more than 1, were killed and tens of thousands were left homeless—Israel and Hamas each declared a unilateral cease-fire. Beginning on November 14,Israel launched a series of air strikes in Gaza in response to an increase in the number of rockets fired from Gaza into Israeli territory over the previous nine months.
Hamas retaliated with increasing rocket attacks on Israel, and hostilities continued until Israel and Hamas reached a cease-fire agreement on November In tensions between Israel and Hamas rose following the disappearance of three Israeli teenagers in the West Bank on June Netanyahu accused Hamas of having abducted the youths, and he vowed not to let the crime go unpunished. Israeli security forces launched a massive sweep in the West Bank to search for the missing boys and to crack down on members of Hamas and other militant groups; several hundred Palestinians suspected of having militant ties were arrested, including several leaders of Hamas in the West Bank.
On June 30 the boys were found dead in the West Bank, outside of Hebron. In the Gaza Strip the atmosphere of heightened tension led to an increase in rocket attacks on Israel by Islamic Jihad and other Palestinian militants. Those had been relatively infrequent since the cease-fire, but by late June rocket launches and Israeli reprisals had become a daily occurrence.
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On June 30, in response to these reprisals, Hamas fired its first rockets into Israel since the cease-fire. On July 8 Israel commenced a large-scale offensive in the Gaza Strip, using aerial bombing, missiles, and mortar fire to destroy a variety of targets that it claimed were associated with militant activity.
In early August Israeli leaders declared that the ground operation had fulfilled its mission, and Israeli troops and tanks pulled back from the Gaza Strip. Fatah was the first exile group to launch attacks against Israel.
What are the origins of these groups? Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi, both of whom have since been killed by Israel. Hamas is an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood, a religious and political organization with branches throughout the Arab world. InHamas wrote its charter, which calls for the destruction of the state of Israel and swears to "raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine.
However, Hamas member Ismail Haniya — named prime minister under the unity government — has spoken of a possible long-term truce with Israel, if Israel withdraws from territory occupied after the war. Fatah was founded by the late Yasser Arafat and a small group of Palestinian nationalists in the late s. The group is a member of the PLO, a loose umbrella group of a number of Palestinian organizations founded in Cairo in the mids. Fatah quickly became the most powerful member of the PLO, which Arafat also led.
What does the PLO think of Israel? In the PLO officially renounced terrorism and recognized Israel's right to exist. They were also allowed to set up Palestinian security forces.
Although the PLO has officially renounced terrorism, some of its member organizations have been accused of or have claimed responsibility for continued attacks. The PLO was initially based largely in Jordan. Most of the guerrillas — and Yasser Arafat — settled in Lebanon. The PLO then launched frequent attacks on Israel from their Lebanese bases, prompting two Israeli invasions of Lebanon — in and What approach does Hamas take toward Israel?
Hamas calls for the destruction of Israel. Its armed resistance has been carried out by suicide bombing attacks on Israeli civilian buses, nightclubs and other venues.
As a result the United States, Israel and the European Union have labeled it a "terrorist organization. Hamas' main claim for support among Palestinians comes from its provision of social welfare services that neither the Israelis nor Fatah provide. From its inception, Hamas has funded and developed an elaborate network of schools, orphanages, health clinics and other social services that have given it reach into every sector of its populations.
How is Fatah viewed as compared to Hamas? Despite its violent past, Fatah is now seen as the more moderate Palestinian party.
While the group's constitution also calls for the destruction of Israel, the group falls under the PLO, which has renounced terrorism.
Fatah's leadership of the Palestinian Authority was seen as corrupt and inept by many Palestinians, which is the major reason for its loss of seats in the government in the election. How have Hamas and Fatah fared politically?
Hamas won a major victory, taking 74 of the seats, in an election deemed fair and honest by international observers. Its rival, the once-dominant Fatah party, criticized for ineffectiveness and corruption, took only 45 seats. Fatah still controls the presidency, the highest elected position in the government. Mahmoud Abbas has held the position since January