TOWN PLANNING IN INDIA -ANCIENT AGE -MEDIEVAL AGE -MODERN AGE | Sakshi Gahlawat - hair-restore.info
Courtesy of the Town and Country Planning Association. This diagram The Commissioner's Plan for Manhattan tried to establish a strict street grid for the development of the rest of the island. The Setback Principle. Figure Location of Kampala City in Relation to Greater Kampala Area. Uganda, but might influence planning theory and practice. Keywords: Camillo Sitte, Artistic Principle, town planning theory the city.1 In question is the fundamental relationship between architecture, urban form and.
Initially, urban culture recovered particularly in existing settlements, often in remnants of Roman towns and cities, but later on, ever more towns were created anew. Meanwhile, the population of western Europe increased rapidly and the utilised agricultural area grew with it. The agricultural areas of existing villages were extended and new villages and towns were created in uncultivated areas as cores for new reclamations.
Since the new centre was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing. Plan by John Speed, In the 9th to 14th centuries, many hundreds of new towns were built in Europe, and many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. New towns were founded in different parts of Europe from about the 9th century on, but most of them were realised from the 12th to 14th centuries, with a peak-period at the end of the 13th.
All kinds of landlords, from the highest to the lowest rank, tried to found new towns on their estates, in order to gain economical, political or military power.
The settlers of the new towns generally were attracted by fiscal, economic, and juridical advantages granted by the founding lord, or were forced to move from elsewhere from his estates. The newly founded towns often show a marked regularity in their plan form, in the sense that the streets are often straight and laid out at right angles to one another, and that the house lots are rectangular, and originally largely of the same size.
Only in the parts of Europe where the process of urbanisation had started relatively late, as in eastern Europe, was it still to go on for one or two more centuries. It would not be until the Industrial Revolution that the same level of expansion of urban population would be reached again, although the number of newly created settlements would remain much lower than in the 12th and 13th centuries.
This model was widely imitated, reflecting the enormous cultural power of Florence in this age; "[t]he Renaissance was hypnotised by one city type which for a century and a half— from Filarete to Scamozzi — was impressed upon utopian schemes: The Ideal City probably by Fra Carnevalec. The Roman archway and colosseum suggest the value of military victory and mass entertainment. The ideal centrally planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael SanzioOnly in ideal cities did a centrally planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael 's Sposalizio Illustration of As built, the unique example of a rationally planned quattrocento new city centre, that of Vigevano —95resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading.
Filarete 's ideal city, building on Leon Battista Alberti 's De re aedificatoria, was named " Sforzinda " in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a "perfect" Pythagorean figurethe circle, took no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete's manuscript. Following the bombardment of Brussels by the French troops of King Louis XIVin which a large part of the city centre was destroyed, Governor Max Emanuel proposed using the reconstruction to completely change the layout and architectural style of the city.
His plan was to transform the medieval city into a city of the new baroque style, modeled on Turinwith a logical street layout, with straight avenues offering long, uninterrupted views flanked by buildings of a uniform size.
This plan was opposed by residents and municipal authorities, who wanted a rapid reconstruction, did not have the resources for grandiose proposals, and resented what they considered the imposition of a new, foreign, architectural style.
In the actual reconstruction, the general layout of the city was conserved, but it was not identical to that before the cataclysm. Despite the necessity of rapid reconstruction and the lack of financial means, authorities did take several measures to improve traffic flow, sanitation, and the aesthetics of the city.
Many streets were made as wide as possible to improve traffic flow. Enlightenment Europe and America[ edit ] During the Second French EmpireHaussmann transformed the medieval city of Paris into a modern capital, with long, straight, wide boulevards. The planning was influenced by many factors, not the least of which was the city's history of street revolutions.
Illustration of Savannah, Georgia on the Oglethorpe Plan in During this period, rulers often embarked on ambitious attempts at redesigning their capital cities as a showpiece for the grandeur of the nation. Disasters were often a major catalyst for planned reconstruction.
An exception to this was in London after the Great Fire of when, despite many radical rebuilding schemes from architects such as John Evelyn and Christopher Wrenno large-scale redesigning was achieved due to the complexities of rival ownership claims. However, improvements were made in hygiene and fire safety with wider streets, stone construction and access to the river.
The Great Fire did, however, stimulate thinking about urban design that influenced city planning in North America. The Grand Model for the Province of Carolinadeveloped in the aftermath of the Great Fire, established a template for colonial planning. Model of the seismically protective wooden structure, the " gaiola pombalina" pombaline cagedeveloped for the reconstruction of Pombaline Lower Town In contrast, after the Lisbon earthquakeKing Joseph I of Portugal and his ministers immediately launched efforts to rebuild the city.
The architect Manuel da Maia boldly proposed razing entire sections of the city and "laying out new streets without restraint". This last option was chosen by the king and his minister. The Pombaline buildings were among the earliest seismically protected constructions in Europe. An even more ambitious reconstruction was carried out in Paris.
Beyond aesthetic and sanitary considerations, the wide thoroughfares facilitated troop movement and policing. His objectives were to improve the health of the inhabitants, towards which the blocks were built around central gardens and orientated NW-SE to maximise the sunlight they received, and assist social integration.
Urban planning - Wikipedia
The industrialised cities of the 19th century had grown at a tremendous rate, with the pace and style of building largely dictated by private business concerns. The evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming increasingly evident as a matter for public concern. The laissez-faire style of government management of the economy, in fashion for most of the Victorian erawas starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged.
Aroundtheorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial ageby providing citizens, especially factory workers, with healthier environments.
Modern zoningwhich enabled planners to legally demarcate sections of cities for different functions, originated in Prussia, and spread to Britain, the USA, and Scandinavia. This was inspired by earlier planned communities built by industrial philanthropists in the countryside, such as Cadburys ' BournvilleLever's Port Sunlight and George Pullman 's eponymous Pullman in Chicago.
All these settlements decentralised the working environment from the centre of the cities, and provided a healthy living space for the factory workers.
History of urban planning
Howard generalised this achievement into a planned movement for the country as a whole. He was also influenced by the work of economist Alfred Marshall who argued in that industry needed a supply of labour that could in theory be supplied anywhere, and that companies have an incentive to improve workers living standards as the company bears much of the cost inflicted by the unhealthy urban conditions in the big cities.
His garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by parks, containing proportionate and separate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. Inspired by the Utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George 's work Progress and PovertyHoward published his book Garden Cities of To-morrow incommonly regarded as the most important book in the history of urban planning. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby.
Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 50, people, linked by road and rail. His successor as chairman of the Garden City Association was Sir Frederic Osbornwho extended the movement to regional planning. The scheme's utopian ideals were that it should be open to all classes of people with free access to woods and gardens and that the housing should be of low density with wide, tree-lined roads.
In North America, the Garden City movement was also popular, and evolved into the "Neighbourhood Unit" form of development.
In the early s, as cars were introduced to city streets for the first time, residents became increasingly concerned with the number of pedestrians being injured by car traffic. The response, seen first in Radburn, New Jerseywas the Neighbourhood Unit-style development, which oriented houses toward a common public path instead of the street.
The neighbourhood is distinctively organised around a school, with the intention of providing children a safe way to walk to school.
The Town and Country Planning Association was founded in and the first academic course on urban planning was offered by the University of Liverpool in The Town Planning Institute was established in with a mandate to advance the study of town-planning and civic design. The Tudor Walters Committee that recommended the building of housing estates after World War One incorporated the ideas of Howard's disciple Raymond Unwinwho demonstrated that homes could be built rapidly and economically whilst maintaining satisfactory standards for gardens, family privacy and internal spaces.
Unwin diverged from Howard by proposing that the new developments should be peripheral 'satellites' rather than fully-fledged garden cities. In the s, the ideas of modernism began to surface in urban planning. The influential modernist architect Le Corbusier presented his scheme for a "Contemporary City" for three million inhabitants Ville Contemporaine in The centrepiece of this plan was the group of sixty-story cruciform skyscrapers, steel-framed office buildings encased in huge curtain walls of glass.
These buildings can relate to schools, colleges, public libraries, building offices, guest houses etc. Each segment or block can have houses that are uniform in height and appearance. Only fortress towns under the patronage of chieftains and petty rulers could grow. Jaunpur was the capital city under the rule of Firozshah. The areas within the walls of a town near its bound were occupied by artisan castes engaged in handicrafts. The entire structure of a town was divided into socially hierarchical classes controlled by the chieftain or bishop.
His buildings were characterized by sensitivity and delicateness. Under the Mughals, they were mainly an urban community, and they disliked village. Muslim life was closely linked to religious event, as well as to ceremonies and festivals or ritual events. Map of Sahajahanabad Source: However, the major streets in the new capital were designed as wide and straight. It ran in a straight line forming a wide boulevard with broad vista. The Fort was visible from any place on the street.
- Urban planning
This perspective view marked a new concept of town planning for the Mughal capital. Chandni Chowk is 1. It was built as the central axis of the city. Karawan Sarai and begum ki Sarai were also located in this area. These major two streets developed as processional routes, as well as commercial arteries.
The streets also assumed importance for ritual events. Streetscapes of Sahajahanabad Sources: The four main gates were Delhi Darwaza on south, the Ajmeri Darwaza on the south-west, the Lahori Darwaza on the west and the Kashmiri Darwaza on the north. These important gates were positioned according to the basic network of the city, being laced on the cardinal points.
The graphic representation of the city was indicated geometric planning and the geometric placement of the main gates. India was the centre — piece of the British Empire on account of — limit less material resources, insatiable markets, enormous man power resource. These attributes funded Britain industrilisation making India- the Jewel in the Crown. Both the architectural style for British buildings in India and town planning ideas were imported from British.
Map of cities made by British Empire Sources: It rise density in the urban centres. Urbanisation led to the rise of the suburb. The arrival of the railways accelerated urban growth. Calcutta, Bombay and Madras grew rapidly and soon became sprawling cities. In other words, the growth of these three cities as the new commercial and administrative centres was at the expense of other existing urban centres.
As the hub of the colonial economy, they functioned as collection depots for the export of Indian manufactures such as cotton textiles in the eighteenth and nineteenth 19 centuries. After the Industrial Revolution in England, this trend was reversed and these cities instead became the entry point for British-manufactured goods and for the export of Indian raw materials.
Economic activity gradually shifted away from traditional towns which were located along old routes and rivers.
Every railway station became a collection depot for raw materials and a distribution point for imported goods. For instance, Mirzapur on the Ganges, which specialised in collecting cotton and cotton goods from the Deccan, declined when a railway link was made to Bombay.
With the expansion of the railway network, railway workshops and railway colonies were established. Railway towns like Jamalpur, Waltair and Bareilly developed.
The nature of the colonial city changed further in mid- nineteenth century.A short History of Urban Planning
After the Revolt of British attitudes in India were shaped by a constant fear of rebellion. White people began to live in the Civil Lines.
Cantonments— places where Indian troops under European command were stationed — were also developed as safe enclaves. These areas were separate from but attached to the Indian towns.