Atlantic Ocean - Wikipedia
A landlocked state in the United States is any state whose territorial boundaries do not touch an ocean, gulf, or bay. The 10 doubly landlocked states, with routes to their nearest ocean, gulf, or bay: Colorado – New Mexico or Oklahoma, then. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your. The sandy or rocky place where the ocean meets the shore is called a beach or coastline. This is a list of countries which border two or more oceans, including both sovereign states and dependencies, provided the same contiguous territory borders.
Mid-Atlantic Ridge The MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges.
The MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the other. While nine of these have collectively been nominated a World Heritage Site for their geological value, four of them are considered of "Outstanding Universal Value" based on their cultural and natural criteria: Continental shelves in the Atlantic are wide off Newfoundland, southern-most South America, and north-eastern Europe.
In the western Atlantic carbonate platforms dominate large areas, for example the Blake Plateau and Bermuda Rise. The Atlantic is surrounded by passive margins except at a few locations where active margins form deep trenches: There are numerous submarine canyons off north-eastern North America, western Europe, and north-western Africa.
Without the resources for the construction of stairways or walkovers, access to these beaches is often comprised of narrow, steep or overgrown walkways. Furthermore, many existing accessways may degrade over time due to harsh saltwater conditions, natural weathering and increasing erosion rates.
The Surfrider Foundation encourages adaptive management, or making considerations for expected sea level and coastal changes when planning, implementing and maintaining beach access. The privatization of coastal land complicates and exacerbates these problems. Actions by coastal private property owners to prevent public access to beaches are an unfortunately common occurrence.
While owners have the right to the land above the mean high tide line in most states, some property owners take measures to prevent beachgoers from accessing the public shore adjacent to their property. These illegal actions include removing beach access signage, putting up no trespassing or private property signs, adding vegetation to block or hide access points or make it appear as if it is private property, erecting fences and hiring private security to turn away beachgoers.
Waterfront commercial developments that do control public beach access, such as beach clubs, often charge exorbitant usage fees. Development can also block or degrade views both from the land to the waves and from the water onto the coast.
Population growth is another factor that increases the demand for this limited resource. Inthe U. As of it was more than million, an increase of over 70 million people in less than 30 years. These trends are expected to continue, further straining the demand for coastal access. As population continues to increase and more people move to coastal areas, public access opportunities can get squeezed out. As a result, the number of access points in most states is not growing fast enough to keep up with current population demand, increasing the strain on existing access points.
Atlantic Ocean | Location, Facts, & Maps | hair-restore.info
Furthermore, coastal towns may have limited accommodation capacities, especially affordable accommodations, for increasing numbers of overnight visitors. Growing population, expanding development and increased consumption can have detrimental affects on our coastal environment. Inadequately treated wastewater, improper solid waste disposal, illegal dumping, and urban runoff from dense coastal development all contribute to degraded water quality. These concerns reach beyond the waters and often end up right on our shorelines.
Washed up and left behind trash and other pollutants not only degrade the quality of recreation for beachgoers but also harm wildlife.
Beaches in highly polluted areas may be shut down for significant portions of the year due to unhealthy water conditions, further restricting public beach access. On-shore development may block coastal access and may also remove open areas which provide recreational space and shade for beachgoers and habitat for many species.
Many threats to beach access exist today. Most of these threats can be addressed through proper management and planning, increased funding, renewed enforcement of existing laws, or changes to current laws and regulations.
However, these solutions are often difficult to attain and require strong public support. Many people are unaware of existing regulations and the rights granted to them by the Public Trust Doctrine. By improving education and developing community awareness, people can become empowered not only to exercise their civil rights, but also to take the necessary actions that will initiate change and improve beach access for all.
Model Programs Oregon Of all the U. Additionally, the Bill establishes a state easement on all beaches between the low water mark and the vegetation line. Hawaii is the only other state that secures public land all the way to the line of vegetation. The documentary, Politics of Sandprovides a detailed look at the establishment of the Beach Bill through the application of the customary use doctrine.
This law states that if the public's recreational use of an area has been ancient, reasonable, without interruption, and free from dispute, such use, as a matter of custom, should not be interfered with.
The expansion of this doctrine to all coastal areas has made Oregon a model for state public beach access programs.
Southern Ocean - Wikipedia
In addition to the Beach Bill, Oregon has other laws that preserve and protect public access. Statewide Planning Goal 17 - Coastal Shorelandsrequires that public lands, rights-of-way, and easements which provide physical or visual access to coastal waters not be sold unless some public access or potential for access across the property is retained.
The state has a requirement that every time a coastal accessway is closed, a new access point must be constructed or an existing access site must be improved in order to maintain or increase the level of public access. Texas Like Oregon, Texas has a statewide law guaranteeing the public the right to unrestricted access its coasts.
This amendment allows for private development on public beaches on the Bolivar Peninsula, essentially privatizing them. While the law is currently in place, the Texas Land Commissioner has refused to enforce the legislation. In response to the passage of HB, measures were taken to protect the Texas Open Beaches Act from similar harmful legislation.
Texas Constitutional Amendment No. This should prevent the approval of any future legislation inconsistent with the Texas Open Beaches Act. These rules established guidelines that require local governments to develop beach access and dune protection laws, which typically occur in the form of management plans. Thus, the responsibility for protecting the public's right to use and enjoy the beach is shared by the state and local coastal governments.
Between pedestrian and vehicle access, Texas has approximately public coastal access sites.
- Atlantic Ocean
- Southern Ocean
- List of landlocked U.S. states
This corresponds to about one public access site for every mile of shoreline, which meets current beach access demand in Texas. In addition, the state employs various methods to minimize environmental impacts of coastal access, including designated accessways, educational signage, and dune walkovers. Although state ownership is only up to the mean high tide line, the state has encouraged the courts to allow unrestricted use of beaches up to the vegetation line based on the common law theories of customary use since "time immemorial," the public trust doctrine, implied dedication, and prescriptive use.
Estimates for the total number of beach access sites in North Carolina vary significantly, but even the highest of these estimates indicate a low access site to coastal land ratio. Since its establishment inover access sites have been constructed. Model Beach Access Guides and Inventories Massachusetts The state of Massachusetts has taken great efforts to inventory and report all coastal access sites along their 1, miles of shoreline.
It also documents the regulation and acquisition programs of several state agencies. The process of building the Register database began in with the completion of an inventory of all publicly accessible coastal properties owned by federal, state, and local governments and by non-profit conservation organizations. Duringfieldwork to collect information on such public access sites along the remainder of the coast was completed.
The Access Locator includes maps and site-specific information for over 1, beaches, parks, conservation areas, and ways to the sea, ranging from the well-publicized expanses of National Seashore down to the smallest local footpaths and landings.
The Register now includes Chapter 91 license access conditions and public easements across private property. An exciting new feature is that the Access Locator now provides "coastwalking" information in the form of downloadable trail maps and associated descriptive material published by the government and non-governmental organization owners of sites containing any kind of footpath.
Making this available online provides recreational visitors to the shoreline with a valuable service.
The Register will also have significant value in coastal land acquisition planning and in resolving disputes about public versus private ownership of coastal properties. Along with building up the coastal access database, Massachusetts CZM has taken significant strides in increasing the amount of information available about publicly accessible beaches and other public recreational facilities in the Commonwealth since The Coast Guide identifies hundreds of diverse coastal areas that are open to the public.
The coastline offers much more than large public beaches on hot summer days. This guide shows the location of many smaller, more intimate areas that are not so well known. It acquaints the reader with less familiar coastal landscapes by showing the way to rocky shores, secluded coves, tidal creeks, marshes, estuaries, and islands some of which can be visited only by boat. In addition, boat ramps, piers, trails, visitor centers, restrooms, and dozens of other facilities and amenities are noted.
The detailed maps show the different coastal access areas and the roads to take to find them. Although brief, the site descriptions give a sense of what you will find when at each location. You can view the guide online or get a free print copy by e-mailing your address to czm state. This page guide includes 90 individual full-color site maps, descriptions of more than access points to state waterways, information about sportfishing piers, fishing in fresh and marine waters, boating law, rights of access, and information about DFG boating and fishing programs.
The site also includes information on beach facilities and a handbook to the Public Trust Doctrine. Through its coastal permitting and beach fill programs, the DEP now requires public accessways every quarter mile as a condition of project approval. The Assessment discusses beach access on pages and continues to rank the improvement of beach access as a high priority for the state.
This information, which includes all public access sites state, federal and locally fundedis now available on DCM's website.
This interactive online Public Beach and Waterfront Access site locator provides a wealth of information on over beach access sites in North Carolina including: The public access sites are grouped into four main types: DCM continues to add access sites every year.
The grants help pay for a variety of projects to improve access to coastal beaches and waters, including walkways, dune crossovers, restrooms, parking areas and piers. It includes known ocean beach access locations, most of which are protected as official inventoried sites. The Web site allows users to view ground photos of access sites and provides information on locationpath to beach, parking, landforms e.
It also provides orthophotography for the entire Oregon coast. Beach access photos and maps are also available via the Beach Water Quality Monitoring links.
OCMP is currently working on a comprehensive update to the coastal access inventory, which will expand the list of sites to include coastal estuaries, and provide more complete data and photos for beach access sites in a Web-based mapping system. The inventory will include everything from state parks with facilities such as parking lots and restrooms to small scale access points.
The inventory will also include coastal access points that are not beaches, such as boat launching sites. These findings will be included on the Oregon Coastal Atlas site once the update is completed. Texas Between pedestrian and vehicle access, Texas had approximately public coastal access sites. This corresponds to about one public access site for every mile of shoreline.
The Texas Beach and Bay Access Guide2nd Edition, allows users to locate a variety of public access sites, coastal state parks, and recreational areas along the Texas Coast.
List of countries bordering on two or more oceans
This guide highlights the five areas that make up the Texas Coast: Each section provides a brief description of the primary recreation activities of each county, and includes location maps and recreational grids. A high heat flowwhich is associated with the extrusion of magma and with seafloor spreadingexists in the rift zone.
The newer rock is composed mainly of gabbro a coarse-grained rock formed deep within the mantle under heat and pressurebasalt a rock that originally poured out at the surface in molten formand serpentine a common rock-forming mineral. Consequent movement of the ocean floor and of the continents in opposite directions outward from the ridge is widening the Atlantic basin at an estimated rate of about 0.
The worldwide average rate has been estimated at 1 inch 2. Corresponding spreading is occurring at an even faster pace in the Pacific Ocean ; in the Atlantic, however, the slower rate of spreading causes the flanks of the ridge to be built up steeply by accumulating lava. The physiography and geology of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have been the subject of much scientific study, as has the geology of the Atlantic as a whole.
Research has focused on refinement of the theory of plate tectonics. In addition, competing subtheories have been developed regarding the large-scale dynamics and cyclicity of tectonic processes, the effects of heat loss and conduction through oceanic and continental crusts, and relative rates of crustal spreading.
LaMourie Bottom deposits The greater part of the bottom of the Atlantic is covered with calcareous ooze. At depths greater than 16, feet 5, metresthe calcium carbonate content decreases, and the calcareous deposits give way to red clay. The finer material is not evident on submarine ridges, and the shells of pteropod gastropods mollusks of the gastropod class comprising the snails may be sufficiently abundant there to characterize the deposits as pteropod ooze.
Diatom ooze formed from microscopic unicellular algae having cell walls consisting of or resembling silica is the most widespread deposit in the high southern latitudes but, unlike in the Pacific, is missing in northern latitudes.
About three-fifths of the bottom itself is covered with mud oozes, globigerina, and so forthabout one-fourth with sandand the rest with rock, graveland shells. Airborne material is abundant off the west coast of Africa, where dry offshore winds carry material from the desert regions. In high latitudes, ice-rafted detritusincluding rock fragments that occasionally show the effect of glacial abrasion, is an important component. Thousands of core samples of marine sedimentsome more than feet 40 metres in length, have been collected in the North and South Atlantic by means of piston-coring tubes.
These cores have revealed the importance of turbidity currents —occasional catastrophic torrents of sediment-laden, and hence denser, water flowing downslope under clear water—as carriers of great quantities of sediment to the greatest depths in the Atlantic.
Since the end of the Pleistocene Epoch about 11, years agoturbidity currents have been relatively infrequent, with the consequence that the characteristic deposits laid down by them are as a rule covered by several inches of normal pelagic sediment.