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Jeannie Knight confesses to a lifelong passion for horses, which started at the . The hair-restore.info Hickstead Derby Meeting has taken top honours in . She knows the families and characteristics of her horses and this is so important. . LAVANT House Stables near Chichester, has a fine reputation for. This fun pony is game for anything having competed extensively in show jumping , dressage and hunter trials. A real character and a fun pony for those who. Phr. character is higher than intellect [Emerson]; come give us a .. deft; meet &c (expedient) at home, in one's proper element. Adj. stable &c ; persisting &c v.; permanent; established; put up one's horses at; keep house. endenizen†, naturalize, adopt. put back, replace &c (restore)

These reserve regiments were composed of Kurdsrural Turks and a few Armenians. Later that month, the best regiments were consolidated into one division and the rest disbanded. Nonetheless, cavalry was used by Ottoman forces throughout in engagements with the Russians, [45] and one cavalry unit even exchanged small arms fire with a submarine crew in the Dardanelles in early In this battle, both sides used cavalry forces as strategic parts of their armies.

By Septemberregular army cavalry forces were stationed throughout the Turkish front, and the only remaining operationally ready reserve forces in the Ottoman military were two cavalry divisions, one formed after the initial problems in In Maya month after the US declaration of war, the National Defense Act went into effect, creating the 18th through the 25th US Cavalry regiments, and later that month, twenty more cavalry regiments were created.

However, British experiences during the first years of the war showed that trench warfare and weapons that included machine guns and artillery made cavalry warfare impractical. Thus, on October 1, eight of the new cavalry regiments were converted to field artillery regiments by order of Congress, and by Augusttwenty National Army horse units were converted to thirty-nine trench mortar and artillery batteries. Some horse units of the 2nd3rd6th and 15th Cavalry regiments accompanied the US forces in Europe.

The soldiers worked mainly as grooms and farriersattending to remounts for the artillery, medical corps and transport services. It was not until late August that US cavalry entered combat. On September 11,these troops rode at night through no man's land and penetrated five miles behind German lines.

Once there, the cavalry was routed and had to return to Allied territory. Despite serving through the Meuse-Argonne Offensiveby mid-October the squadron was removed from the front with only of its men remaining. They were used to pull ambulances, carry supplies and ordnance. At the beginning of the war, the German army depended upon horses to pull its field kitchens, as well as the ammunition wagons for artillery brigades. Horses often drew artillery and steady animals were crucial to artillery effectiveness.

We'd put them on a picket line between the wagon wheels at night and they'd be sunk in over their fetlocks the next day. We had to shoot quite a number. In one instance, two teams of sixteen horses each had their hoovestack and pulling chains wrapped to reduce noise.

The teams and their handlers then successfully pulled out two guns and returned them to British lines, the horses jumping a trench in the process and waiting out an artillery barrage by German troops on the road they needed to take.

German agents in the US are suspected of infecting cattle and horses bound for France with glandersa disease which can fatally spread to humans; similar tactics were used by the Germans against the Russians, causing breakdowns in their ability to move artillery on the Eastern Front. In at the Battle of Passchendaelemen at the front understood that "at this stage to lose a horse was worse than losing a man because after all, men were replaceable while horses weren't.

The British Army Remount Servicein an effort to improve the supply of horses for potential military use, provided the services of high quality stallions to British farmers for breeding their broodmares. Larger crossbred horses were acceptable for regular work with plentiful rations, but proved less able to withstand short rations and long journeys.

Riflemen with tall horses suffered more from fatigue, due to the number of times they were required to mount and dismount the animals. Animals used for draught work, including pulling artillery, were also found to be more efficient when they were of medium size with good endurance than when they were tall, heavy and long-legged.

One estimate puts the number of horses that served in World War I at around six million, with a large percentage of them dying due to war-related causes.

This shortfall required the US to help with remount efforts, even before it had formally entered the war. This deployment seriously depleted the country's equine population.

Only returned to the US, and 60, were killed outright. The district is by no means devoid of fertility, the steep slopes facing the south enjoying so fine a climate as to render them very favourable for the growth of fruit trees, especially the olive, which is cultivated in terraces to a considerable height up the face of the mountains, while the openings of the valleys are generally occupied by towns or villages, some of which have become favourite winter resorts.

From the proximity of the mountains to the sea none of the rivers in this part of Italy has a long course, and they are generally mere mountain torrents, rapid and swollen in winter and spring, and almost dry in summer.

The largest and most important are those which descend from the Maritime Alps between Nice and Albenga. The most considerable of them are—the Roja, which rises in the Col di Tenda and descends to Ventimiglia; the Taggia, between San Remo and Oneglia; and the Centa, which enters the sea at Albenga. The Lavagna, which enters the sea at Chiavari, is tlye only stream of any importance between Genoa and the Gulf of Spezia.

But immediately east of that inlet a remarkable instance of a deep landlocked gulf with no river flowing into it the Magra, which descends from Pontremoli down the valley known as the Lunigiana, is a large stream, and brings with it the waters of another considerable stream, the Vara. The Magra Macrain ancient times the boundary between Liguria and Etruria, may be considered as constituting on this side the limit of Northern Italy. The Ligurian Apennines may be considered as taking their rise in the neighbourhood of Savona, where a pass of very moderate elevation connects them with the Maritime Alps, of which they are in fact only a continuation.

From the neighbourhood of Savona to that of Genoa they do not rise to more than to ft. As they extend towards the east they increase in elevation; the Monte Bue rises to ft. This is the highest point in the northern Apennines, and belongs to a group of summits of nearly equal altitude; the range which is continued thence between Tuscany and what are now known as the Emilian provinces presents a continuous ridge from the mountains at the head of the Val di Mugello due north of Florence to the point where they are traversed by the celebrated Furlo Pass.

The highest point in this part of the range is the Monte Falterona, above the sources of the Arno, which attains ft. Throughout this tract the Apennines are generally covered with extensive forests of chestnut, oak and beech; while their upper slopes afford admirable pasturage. Few towns of any importance are found either on their northern or southern declivity, and the former region especially, though occupying a tract of from 30 to 40 m.

The line of the highest summits and of the watershed ranges is about 30 to 40 m. In this part of the range almost all the highest points of the Apennines are found. Beginning from the group called the Alpi della Luna near the sources of the Tiber, which attain ft.

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Proceeding thence southwards, we find in succession the Monte Vettore ft. Farther south no very lofty summits are found till we come to the group of Monti del Matese, in Samnium ft. Besides the lofty central masses enumerated there are two other lofty peaks, outliers from the main range, and separated from it by valleys of considerable extent. These are the Monte Terminillo, near Leonessa ft.

But the Apennines of Central Italy, instead of presenting, like the Alps and the northern Apennines, a definite central ridge, with transverse valleys leading down from it on both sides, in reality constitute a mountain mass of very considerable breadth, composed of a number of minor ranges and groups of mountains, which preserve a generally parallel direction, and are separated by upland valleys, some of them of considerable extent as well as considerable elevation above the sea.

Such is the basin of Lake F ueino, situated in the centre of the mass, almost exactly midway between the two seas, at an elevation of ft. Still more elevated is the valley of the Gizio a tributary of the Aternoof which Sulmona is the chief town.

This communicates with the upper valley of the Sangro by a level plain called the Piano di Cinque Miglia, at an elevation of ft. Nor do the highest summits form a continuous ridge of great altitude for any considerable distance; they are rather a series of groups separated by tracts of very inferior elevation forming natural passes across the range, and broken in some places as is the case in almost all limestone countries by the waters from the upland valleys turning suddenly at right angles, and breaking through the mountain ranges which bound them.

Thus the Gran Sasso and the Maiella are separated by the deep valley of the Aterno, while the Tronto breaks through the range between Monte Vettore and the Pizzo di Sevo. This constitution of the great mass of the central Apennines has in all ages exercised an important influence upon the character of this portion of Italy, which may be considered as divided by nature into two great regions, a cold and barren upland country, bordered on both sides by rich and fertile tracts, enjoying a warm but temperate climate.

The district west of the Apennines, a region of great beauty and fertility, though inferior in productiveness to Northern Italy, coincides in a general way with the countries familiar to all students of ancient history as Etruria and Latium. Until the union of Italy they were comprised in Tuscany and the southern Papal States.

The northern part of Tuscany is indeed occupied to a considerable extent by the under falls and offshoots of the Apennines, which, besides the slopes and spurs of the main range that constitutes its northern frontier towards the plain of the Po, throw off several outlying ranges or groups.

Of these the most remarkable is the group between the valleys of the Serchio and the Magra, commonly known as the mountains of Carrara, from the celebrated marble quarries in the vicinity of that city. Two of the summits of this group, the Pizzo d'Uccello and the Pania della Croce, attain and ft. Another lateral range, the Prato Magno, which branches off from the central chain at the Monte Falterona, and separates the upper valley of the Arno from its second basin, rises to ft.

The rest of this tract is for the most part a hilly, broken country, of moderate elevation, but Monte Amiata, near Radicofani, an isolated mass of volcanic origin, attains a height of ft. South of this the country between the frontier of Tuscany and the Tiber is in great part of volcanic origin, forming hills with distinct crater-shaped basins, in several instances occupied by small lakes the Lake of Bolsena, Lake of Vico and Lake of Bracciano.

This volcanic tract extends across the Campagna of Rome, till it rises again in the lofty roup of the Alban hills, the highest summit of which, the Monte gave, is ft.

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In this part the Apennines are separated from the sea, distant about 30 m. South of Palestrina again, the main mass of the Apennines throws off another lateral mass, known in ancient times as the Volscian mountains now called the Monti Lepiniseparated from the central rarges by the broad valley of the Sacco, a tributary of the Liri Liris or arigliano, and forming a large and rugged mountain mass, nearly ft.

Besides these offshoots of the Apennines there are in this art of Central Italy several detached mountains, rising almost like islands on the seashore, of which the two most remarkable are the Monte Argentaro on the coast of Tuscany near Orbetello ft. The two valleys of the Arno and the Tiber Ital. Tevere may be considered as furnishing the key to the geography of all this portion of Italy west of the Apennines.

Its principal tributary is the Sieve, which joins it at Pontassieve, bringing down the waters of the Val di Mugello; The Elsa and the Era, which, join it on its left bank, descending from the hills near Siena and Volterra, are inconsiderable streams; and the Serchio, which Hows from the territory of Lucca and the Alpi Apuani, and formerly joined the Arno a few miles from its mouth, now enters the sea by a separate channel.

The most considerable rivers of Tuscany south o the Arno are the Cecina, which fiows through the plain below Volterra, and the Ombrone, which rises in the hills near Siena, and enters the 'sea about 12 m. The Tiber, a much more important river than the Arno, and the largest in Italy with the exception of the Po, rises in the Apennines, about 20 rn.

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The Nera, which rises in the lofty group of the Monte della Sibilla, is a considerable stream, and brings with it the waters of the Velino with its tributaries the Turano and the Saltowhich joins it a few miles below its celebrated waterfall at Terni.

The Teverone or Anio, which enters the Tiber a few miles above Rome, is an inferior stream to the Nera, but brings down a considerable body of water from the mountains above Subiaco. It is a singular fact in the geography of Central Italy that the valleys of the Tiber and Arno are in some measure connected by that of the Chiana, a level and marshy tract, the waters from which flow partly into the Arno and partly into the Tiber.

The eastern declivity of the central Apennines towards the Adriatic is far less interesting and varied than the western. The central range here approaches much nearer to the sea, and hence, with few exceptions, the rivers that flow from it have short courses and are of comparatively little importance.

They may be enumerated, proceeding from Rimini southwards: I the F oglia; 2 the Metauro, of historical celebrity, and affording access to one of the most frequented asses of the Apennines; 3 the Esino; 4 the Potenza; 5 the ghienti; 6 the Aso; 7 the Tronto; 8 the Vomano; 9 the Aterno; 10 the Sangro; II the Trigno, which forms the boundary of the southernmost province of the Abruzzi, and may therefore be taken as the limit of Central Italy.

The whole of this portion of Central Italy is a hilly country, much broken and cut up by the torrents from the mountains, but fertile, especially in fruit-trees, olives and vines; and it has been, both in ancient and modern times, a populous district, containing many small towns though no great cities.

Its chief disadvantage is the absence of ports, the coast preserving an almost unbroken straight line, with the single exception of Ancona, the only port worthy of the name on the eastern 'coast of Central Italy. The whole of the district known in ancient times as Samnium a part of which retains the name of Sannio, though officially designated the province of Campobasso is occupied by an irregular mass of mountains, of much inferior height to those of Central Italy, and broken up into a number of groups, intersected by rivers, which have for the most part a very tortuous course.

This mountainous tract, which has an average breadth of from 50 to 60 m.

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The central mass of the mountains, however, throws out two outlying ranges, the one to the west, which separates the Bay of Naples from that of Salerno, and culminates in the Monte S. Angelo above Castellammare ft. On the east side in like manner the Monte Gargano ft. From the neighbourhood of Potenza, the main ridge of the Apennines is continued by the Monti della Maddalena in a direction nearly due south, so that it approaches within a short distance of the Gulf of Policastro, whence it is carried on as far as the Monte Pollino, the last of the lofty summits of the Apennine chain, which exceeds ft.

A similar mass, separated from the preceding by a low neck of Tertiary hills, fills up the whole of the peninsular extremity of Italy from Squillace to Reggio. Its hi hest point is called Aspromonte ft. The Monte Volture, which rises in the neighbourhood of Melfi and Venosa to ft. Eastward from this the ranges of low bare hills called the Murgie of Gravina and Altamura gradually sink into the still more moderate level of those which constitute the peninsular tract between Brindisi and Taranto as far as the Cape of Sta Maria di Leuca, the south-east extremity of Italy.

None of the rivers of Southern Italy is of any great importance. Below this the watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side to allow the formation of any large streams. Hence the rivers that flow in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taranto have much longer courses, though all partake of the character of mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter and after Storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty streams, which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains of Apulia.

Proceeding south from the Trigno, already mentioned as constituting the limit of Central Italy, there are 1 the Biferno and 2 the Fortore, both rising in the mountains of Samnium, and flowing into the Adriatic west of Monte Gargano; 3 the Cervaro, south of the great promontory; and 4 the Ofanto, the Aufidus of Horace, whose description of it is characteristic of almost all the rivers of Southern Italy, of which it may be taken as the typical representative.

It rises about 15 m. In its lower course it flows near Canosa and traverses the celebrated battlefield of Cannae. The Crati, which flows from Cosenza northwards, and then turns abruptly eastward to enter the same gulf, is the only stream worthy of notice in the rugged peninsula of Calabria; while the arid limestone hills projecting eastwards to Capo di Leuca do not give rise to anything more than a mere streamlet, from the mouth of the Ofanto to the south-eastern extremity of Italy.

They have been already noticed in connexion with the rivers by which L ke they are formed, but may be again enumerated in order of 8 S succession. Of these the last named is considerably the largest, covering an area of [43 sq. Maggiore, notwithstanding its name, though considerably exceeding it in length 37 m.

Of a wholly different character is the Lago di Varese, between the Lago Maggiore and that of Lugano, which is a mere shallow ex anse of water, surrounded by hills of very moderate elevation. The former has shown she has speed an ability to overcome a poor draw for the Laidler team. Ring of Fire second in a heat and final here in the spring might be an each way bet.

Blackwell Hallstar has recently changed hands and has the plumb draw but I think the winner will come out of the second tier Rhyds Passion the Famous Musselburgh Pace winner, Springhill Glory the Ceredigion Classic winner and Bucklands Foxtrot who has been running out of his skin this season will be fighting out the finish Race 7.

The last of the trots and they will be running for the Ginger Wyatt Memorial. The turn of the 2 y old fillies Imperial Deal was a gallant second in the recent VDM and has consistent form.

Newtown Jody and Stateside Pinup have both been supplemented for this race which may be a clue whilst Loose Change comes down from bonnie Scotland Race Oakwood Inittowinit is always in the frame but Christy Camden may be the one to beat. Saturday sees a cracking 15 race card so here we go with trying to find the winners. The chase for the Strata Florida handicap Gp2 is onthis heat could be between the two Coalford horses Insignia and Lachance unless Wye Joels Best hits top form and Jacks Red who hasn't run for two years could spring a surprise.

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The Murphy stable from Skibereen Co. Cork are double handed in this one Donal has chosen to drive Rebel Rouser therefore would be the choice but Born to Run in the hands of James Haythornthwaite might just sneak this one for England. Father Ted has drawn one and is in form, however if he wins we may have to endure Marc Jones running round the track in his undies, therefore the Scottish invader Soul Searcher - unbeaten thus far might save all our blushes.

Rocker is three handed in this heat and whichever he chooses to drive will be a hint however his other two runners will be a danger along with Irish raider Panam Colt for the Kelleher clan.

On paper this looks a two horse race the 3 y old Teddy Camden a recent big money purchase should back up his easy Boughrood win in the hands of David Bevan but Michael Lord and Greenhill Debatable the ultra consistent filly will be looking for weaknesses.

The first of the Maiden races and there is no obvious standout performer here but surely Two for Tea in the care of Mark Pritchard is due a visit to the winners enclosure and where better than Tregaron. The first Novice contest sees Jack Sparrow the Foody stable runner take on Nancy Camden for honours here unless the aptly named Irish raider Riverdance Hanover can spoil their fun.

Once more we have two Irish imports who will be looking to take the honours Triplicity bred in Wales and A Kind Of Magic may be the pick with Georgie Camden for the Teeboon team looking for a place. Greenhill Gus an import from wales and Border Counties Racing and a winner in Boughrood last Sunday will be looking for a quick double in the hands of local postie Alan Jones- Isabella Camden might be his problem. The best of the older trotters running for the Glenda Jackson Trophy therefore the heart would dictate a winner for Emyr Edwards ,who presented the trophy in honour of his great mare, in the form of Vincita however Amazing,Bora Bora De Seg and the joker in the pack Belkolinja will be strong competition.

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All summer long the younger generation of drivers have made the headlines in West Cork but on Sunday 75 year old driver John Boyle was the man of the moment when he landed the high grade pace with Supreme Sunshine at the Old Chapel meeting at the Bandon showgrounds venue. Boyle a native of Donegal but based in Doneraile Mallow for over 50 years has been involved in the sport all his life.

Supreme Sunshine led from the start and despite a late rally from Hail Spartacus the cheers raised the roof for the ever popular Boyle " Ive been chasing those young lads all the Summer and its great to get a win " said Boyle in the post race press briefing.

He was unlucky not to drive a double.