Guest Tree is an evergreen, bushy tree growing up to 20 m high, with a dense rounded crown and upright pink sprays of flowers and fruits. It grows from 8 to 15 . Kleinhovia hospita. Family. Malvaceae. Botanical Name. Kleinhovia hospita L. Linnaeus, C. von () Species Plantarum ed. 2: Type: Habitat in India. Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. Biodiversity Documentation for Kerala Part 6: Flowering Plants, N. Sasidharan,
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Doxorubicin DOX is a potent chemotherapy agent; however, its use may lead to cardiac, hepatic, and renal dysfunction. Kleinhovia hospita L extract contains antioxidant compounds that have been shown to reduce chemical-induced hepatotoxicity.
This study aimed to examine the protective effects of Kleinhovia sp. Thirty male rats were assigned to the following groups: After 24 h, blood and organs were analyzed for biomarker levels and histopathological changes. Urea and creatinine levels in Kleinhovia sp. Histopathological analysis showed improved liver, heart, and renal tissue structures in Kleinhovia sp-treated rats, especially at higher doses. Although renal biomarkers were insignificantly lower, renal architecture was improved hospitq Kleinhovia sp.
Doxorubicin DOX is a potent chemotherapy and widely used for many cancer types. However, it may lead to cardiac toxicity when used chronically or in a high dose, leading to myocardial dysfunction in cancer patients.
Kleinhovia hospita L is known as Paliasa or Tahongai in Indonesia, and its leaves have been empirically used to treat hepatitis.
Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of Kleinhovia sp. The dose of Kleinhovia sp. Animals were cared for in accordance with the institutional standard for using experimental animals. Animals were adapted in the cage for 2 weeks before conducting experiment. The project was registered with ethical number of UH Experimental protocol is depicted kleinhovix Figure 1. Rats were assigned into one of the five groups.
Blood samples were withdrawn 1 day before any treatment given to obtain baseline data. Diagram of experimental protocols. Animals were adapted for 14 days prior to Kleinhovia sp. At day 5, rats were injected with either saline or doxorubicin. After 24 h, blood was withdrawn and organs were harvested for further analysis.
After withdrawing the blood, kldinhovia were euthanized with cervical dislocation. Two subsequent sections of each organ sample kleiinhovia examined by an investigator blinded to the treatment groups using a microscope and photographed with a digital sight camera Nikon Eclipse 50i. Normal distribution was analyzed with 1-K sample Kolmogorov—Smirnov test.
Normally distributed data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s honest significant difference post hoc test. All biomarker levels measured before treatments showed a normal range for rat plasma biomarkers and shown in Table 1. Two parameters were used to indicate liver toxicity: ALT is more sensitive and specific as an indicator of liver cell integrity and function, thus increased level of ALT is kleiinhovia excellent predictor to indicate liver damage.
Meanwhile, AST is found equally abundant in the liver and cardiac cells, hence AST elevation may detect either liver or cardiac damage or both.
In contrast, rats treated with Kleinhovia sp. Levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase-MB, urea, and creatinine in rats treated with doxorubicin only and Kleinhovia sp. Interestingly, AST elevation was also evident in groups that received Kleinhovia sp. It is believed that the increased AST level was dominantly released from damaged cardiac cells rather than liver cells as the ALT levels in those groups were near normal.
This result indicates that Kleinhovia sp.
File:Kleinhovia hospita (753479932).jpg
This hypothesis is also supported by the result of CK-MB analysis, which is a sensitive and specific biomarker for myocardial infarction. In contrast, the high dose of Kleinhovia sp. For renal toxicity evaluation, two biomarkers were measured: Creatinine is a more specific marker to depict renal function compared to urea, but both markers are widely used in clinical setting to monitor renal function.
The data show that DOX injection led to significantly increased urea level but did not markedly increase creatinine level. Administration of Kleinhovia sp. In liver tissues [ Figure 3 ], control rats showed normal architecture of hepatocytes. However, after 24 h of DOX i. Representative of liver tissues in controls, rats treated with doxorubicin only or with Kleinhovia sp. Group III with Kleinhovia sp.
Group IV with Kleinhovia sp.
Group V with Kleinhovia sp. In cardiac tissue, treatment with DOX only Group II caused significant structural changes in myocardium of rats, including loss of kleinhofia striation and eosinophilic cytoplasm, which indicate progression of myocardial infarction. Scattered pyknotic nuclei were also evident in myocardium of rats in Group II. Eosinophilic area and loss of cross striation were still apparent in rats treated with Kleinhovia sp.
Representative of myocardial tissue in controls, rats treated with doxorubicin only or with Kleinhovia sp. Group control a shows a normal myocardial architecture. Group II with doxorubicin only b had loss kleinhlvia cross striation, pyknotic cell black arrowand congestion red arrow. In renal tissue, control rats showed a normal architecture of glomerulus and tubules. In rats treated with DOX only, the structure of renal tubules was significantly altered, which mostly showed swelling, hydropic degeneration of tubules, and vacuolization.
Necrotic changes and pyknotic cells were also evident in Group II. Representative of renal histology in controls, rats treated with doxorubicin only or with Kleinhovia sp.
Group I a shows normal tubule architecture. Group II b shows extensive damage with tubule hydropic degeneration yellow arrowvacuolization green arrowand necrotic cells black arrows. Regardless of its potent chemotherapy action, DOX administration often leads to complications in patients with cancer.
Due to its cardiotoxicity, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with breast cancer significantly increases with DOX chemotherapy. Toxic effects of DOX are triggered from its conversion to semiquinone form, which is further converted into free radical metabolites C7-radical DOX. Some animal studies have been conducted to find better protection against DOX toxicity.
Toxic effect of DOX is associated with increased formation of ROS, profuse release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation, and induction of apoptotic and necrotic changes in these organs.
Interestingly, analysis for renal biomarkers did not show a significant difference between DOX-only and Kleinhovia sp-pretreated animals. Histopathological examination reveals that DOX induces extensive damage to the liver, heart, and renal structures. This present study showed that administration of higher doses of Kleinhovia sp.
Congestion might be, in part, a result of anesthetic use during ileinhovia prior to euthanasia. This may suggest that protective effect of Kleinhovia sp. Leaves of Kleinhovia sp. These include kaempferol 3-O-b-D-glucoside and eleuthero,[ 7 ] cycloartane hospit including gardenolic acid B,[ 5 ] and Kleinhospitines A-D.
This contention is also supported by improved hepatic and cardiac tissue architecture following Kleinhovia sp. Regardless of some improvement in renal tubule histology, administration of Kleinhovia sp. The authors would like to thank Ismail and Muhammad Nur Amir for their support on sample collection and animal care. We would also acknowledge lkeinhovia part of the data has been presented in the 2 nd Indonesian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy in Bali, Indonesia, in October National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Journal List Pharmacognosy Res v. Yulia Yusrini Djabir1 M. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
At the given dose, doxorubicin induced pathological changes in cardiac, liver lleinhovia renal tissues. Pretreatment with Kleinhovia sp. Improvement in histological structures of cardiac, liver and renal tissues was shown in Kleinhovia sp.
Factsheet – Kleinhovia hospita
Acute toxicity, doxorubicin, Kleinhovia sp. Experimental design Experimental protocol is depicted in Figure 1. Open in a separate window. Histopathological examination After withdrawing the blood, rats were euthanized with cervical dislocation. Table 1 Baseline biomarker levels. Biomarker analysis Two parameters were used to indicate liver toxicity: Kelinhovia examination In liver tissues [ Figure 3 ], control rats showed normal architecture of hepatocytes.
Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Ismail and Muhammad Nur Amir for their support on sample collection and animal care.
Late cardiac effects of chemotherapy in breast cancer survivors treated with adjuvant doxorubicin: Breast Cancer Res Treat. Protective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity.
Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the traditional Indonesian medicine tahongai Kleinhovia hospita L. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. Cycloartane triterpenoids from Kleinhovia hospita. Kleinhospitines A-D, new cycloartane triterpenoid alkaloids from Kleinhovia hospita.