Irvingia is a genus of African and Southeast Asian trees in the family Irvingiaceae, sometimes known by the common names wild mango, African mango, bush. Some authorities consider this species to be merely a variety of Irvingia gabonensis. Because of the long history of protection and cultivation, others consider. Irvingia wombolu. Irvingiaceae. Vermoesen. LOCAL NAMES. English (bitter bush mango). BOTANIC DESCRIPTION. Irvingia wombolu is a tree to m tall.

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Email this to a friend Print Share on facebook Tweet this. Showing 0 of 0 comments. Irvingia wombolu 1, flowering twig; 2, flower; 3, fruit; 4, fruit in cross section. Redrawn and adapted by Achmad Satiri Nurhaman. Irvingia wombolu Irvingiaceae Irvingia wombolu x – 76k – jpg herbaria.

Irvingia – Wikipedia

Irvingia wombolu Fruits of Irvingia gabonensis bush Irvingia wombolu Variation in colour and size of Irvingia wombolu Irvingia gabonensis x 80 – 6k – thb www. Irvingia wombolu Plate Irvingia wombolu Research is therefore needed to The iirvingia of fruits and Irvingia wombolu Figure 6.

Plotted values are means Irvingia wombolu Figure 7. Irvingia wombolu Irvingiaceae Irvingia wombolu x – 92k – jpg herbaria. Irvingia wombolu Figure 4 x – 40k – gif www. Irvingia wombolu References 45 x 42 – 2k – gif www. Irvingia wombolu Nutrient content of Irvingia kernels Irvingia wombolu Irvingia gabonensis – African tree Irvingia wombolu Trader of wild mango Irvingia spp. Bitter bush mango, dry season bush mango En. Dika, odika, manguier sauvage, chocolatier, ogbono Fr.

Irvingia wombolu occurs in the forest zone from the Cassamance in Senegal east to southern Sudan and Uganda, and south to south-western DR Congo and northern Angola. Wombplu kernels from the fruit are an important ingredient in cooking and are preferred over those of other Irvingia spp. They are processed by grinding and crushing, and then used to thicken soups and stews.

An edible oil is extracted from the seed and used in cooking. As it is solid at ambient temperatures it has been used as a substitute for cocoa butter and for soap-making. The presscake is a good cattle feed and is suitable in the food industry. The pulp of the fruit of Irvingia wombolu is bitter and slimy and is occasionally added to soups as thickener. Irvingia wombolu is commonly preserved when clearing land for agriculture to provide shade for crops, especially cocoa and coffee but also annual crops.

The medicinal uses of Irvingia spp. Preparations from the bark are rubbed on to the body to relieve pains and are applied to sores and wounds and against toothache. They are also taken to treat diarrhoea. The Igbo people use a leaf extract as a febrifuge.

In Cameroon preparations mainly from the bark are used to treat hernia and yellow fever, and as an antidote for poisoning. Kernels are used to treat diabetes. Young trees are used for making poles and stakes, while branches are made into walking sticks or thatched roof supports.


Dead branches are used as firewood. Kernels of Irvingia wombolu and related species are widely traded domestically and between countries in West and Central Africa and are exported to Europe. Cameroon is probably the main exporter. Nigeria is the main importing country. The wood of Irvingia wombolu is mainly used locally and rarely exported. The nutritive value of the kernels of Irvingia wombolu per g edible portion is: Wombollu sliminess and viscosity of soups imparted by the kernels varies between kernels from different trees.

The kernels of Irvingia wombolu are considered better than those of other Irvingia spp. Fat content of kernels also varies between trees and is about The residue obtained after separation from the fat is suitable for processing in the food industry. Heartwood of Irvingia rivingia and Irvingia wombolu is pale greenish brown or orange-yellow fading to greyish brown; sapwood is irvingla, but not always clearly differentiated.

The grain is straight or interlocked, texture fine to medium. The wood is fairly heavy.

The shrinkage rates are high, from green to oven dry 6. To avoid end surface checking, logs should be converted soon after felling, preferably by quarter-sawing. The timber is moderately difficult to saw or plane and tools should be kept sharp.

It dresses to a smooth finish and glues well. The timber is durable and fairly resistant to termites, but susceptible to powder-post beetles and marine borers.

The heartwood is untreatable, the sapwood resistant to preservatives. The kernels of all Irvingia species are used as thickener for soups and stews. Groundnuts and okra are used similarly in West and Central Africa. Small to medium-sized tree up to 25 m tall; bole often slightly leaning, up to 80 cm in diameter, with buttresses to 2 m high; bark greyish brown; crown spherical, fairly dense.

Leaves alternate, simple and entire; stipules large, unequal, forming a cone protecting the bud, caducous, leaving an annular scar on the irvintia petiole up to 10 mm long; blade elliptical to obovate, 6. Inflorescence an axillary panicle up to 9 cm long. Flowers bisexual, regular, 5-merous, small; pedicel up to 6 mm long; sepals free, c.

Fruit an ellipsoid drupe, slightly laterally compressed, 4. Womolu counts 7 species, 6 in tropical Africa and 1 in South-East Asia.

Journal of Agricultural Extension

Irvingia wombolu is closely related to and difficult to distinguish from Irvingia gabonensis. Irvingia gabonensis has wombklu fruit pulp while that of Irvingia wombolu is bitter and inedible. Some authorities consider Irvingia wombolu merely a variety of Irvingia gabonensis. Because of the womboou history of protection and cultivation, others consider them cultivars of a single species.

However, DNA analyses indicate that the 2 taxa are ifvingia distinct and do not or hardly hybridize, even where sympatric. The analyses also showed marked differences between populations of Irvingia wombolu from south-eastern Nigeria and Cameroon. Irvingia wombolu starts flowering when 6—10 years old. It does not have a clearly demarcated flowering wimbolu, but flowering peaks at the end of the rainy season or beginning of the dry season, while fruiting peaks at the end of the dry season.


Flowers are pollinated by insects. Irvingia wombolu occurs in dryland forest with more than mm annual rainfall. In some locations it grows in seasonally flooded forest and on river banks. It is adapted to a wider rainfall range than other Irvingia spp. Trees are fire tender.


Irvingia wombolu is mostly propagated by seed, but methods of vegetative propagation have been developed. Seed loses its viability within one month and has to be planted soon after collection. Irvingia wombolu is mostly retained and protected in cocoa and coffee farms, plantations of annual food crops, and home gardens.

However, in some regions, including the Mamfe region of south-western Cameroon, most trees are planted especially in cocoa and coffee farms.

Management includes pruning, wmbolu and harvesting gathering and picking. No diseases or pest of Irvingia wombolu trees have been womboul. Seeds are infested by larvae of the merchant grain beetle Oryzaephilus mercator.

Eggs are laid between the testa and cotyledons of the seed or in cracks in the cotyledons. Preventing cracks helps to prevent ievingia. Irvingia wombolu fruits are mostly gathered from the ground around the tree. The next step consists of extracting the kernel from the seed, which is split in halves with a cutlass, after which the kernel irviniga removed with the help of a knife.

The kernels are then dried in the sun or on bamboo drying racks over the fireplace in the kitchen. Once solid, the cake is removed from the container and is ready for use. If well dried, it can be stored for more than a year. Sometimes women place a tin below the grid on which the dika cake is stored, wonbolu collect the oil that drips from it.

Oil is extracted by boiling the ground kernels and scooping off the oil. Centres of genetic diversity in Irvingia wombolu have been identified: ICRAF and its collaborative partners in the region have established in-situ germplasm collections in the natural distribution range of Irvingia wombolu in Cameroon and Nigeria. Irvingia wombolu is widespread and does not seem to be in danger of genetic erosion.

This programme utilizes the variability within the species by selecting trees with desirable traits and propagating them, while keeping a broad genetic base. A clonal approach aimed at cultivar development has been adopted. An assessment of the variability in fruits and kernel traits was made and trees were selected on the basis of desired fruit characteristics.