Common Name: West African Rubber Tree. Funtumia elastica. Drawing of the leaves and flowers. Photograph by: Matilda Smith Public domain. Funtumia elastica (Preuss) Stapf [family APOCYNACEAE]. Common names. English West African rubber tree; Lagos silk rubber tree; bush rubber (Ghana. Description. Tree to 30 m tall; bole straight and cylindrical, crown narrow; bark brown to dark, thin, slightly fissured, becoming granular on old trees; Slash orange.

Author: Fell Mikanris
Country: Myanmar
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Politics
Published (Last): 3 August 2008
Pages: 201
PDF File Size: 15.96 Mb
ePub File Size: 3.50 Mb
ISBN: 888-9-27546-316-5
Downloads: 56874
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Kimuro

These data were derived from single microarrays per treatment with mixed RNA from 3 different calves, which precluded strict interpretation. The majority of in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of some immune enhancing botanicals is due to bacterial lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides.

Discussion Both prophylactic and post-exposure strategies involving innate immune stimulation by adjuvants have been shown to prevent or ameliorate infections [ 4445 ]. Fractionation and characterization of biologically-active polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita. First, we found that multiple lots from two different commercial sources exhibited similar bioactivity, suggesting that a random contaminant likely did not account for our results.

See Terms of Use for details. Representative of at least 3 experiments. Around there were large plantations in Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon.

Slight differences were detected between the 3 sub-fractions. Flowers in axillary, many-flowered cymes, 5-merous, white to yellowish; peduncle 1 cm long; pedicel mm long; calyx 5 mm long, deeply divided, segments on the inside with 2 glands; corolla salver-shaped, tube mm long, segments oblong, about 5 mm long. The publisher’s final edited version of this article is available at Int Immunopharmacol. The supernatant fluid was removed and the process was repeated with fresh Polymyxin Support beads.


At present it is economically of no importance. Am J Respir Cell Mol.

Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of Funtumia elastica.

Three separate experiments are shown, thin bar indicates mean, thick error bars represent SEM. Requirement for gamma delta T cells in allergic airway inflammation. Hybridization, staining and scans were performed as previously described, and analysis was done using GeneSpring Silicon Genetics with robust multi array RMA preprocessing and Microsoft Excel.

Despite elasttica exposure, therapeutic addition of Yam-I induced rapid and robust beneficial cellular responses at the intestinal surface resulting in decreased CFU counts in feces.

HeJ mice at least 3 per group.

Yam-I was treated with two rounds of treatment with PMB elasticz, 2. Immunomodulatory activity of acidic polysaccharides isolated from Tanacetum vulgare L. Comparison of lipopolysaccharides from Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Campylobacter and Wolinella spp.

The seed has been used to adulterate Strophanthus seed in the production of strophantin. Clearly, Yam-I functionally overlaps with LPS to some extent but the intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to LPS from food, environment and normal flora.

Bradley Jones, University of Iowa for use in an enterocolitis model of ST infection involving pretreatment with streptomycin [ 33 ]. CDnegative cells were then stained with GD3. The in vivo activity of low concentrations of Yam-I were consistent with the low functional concentrations found in in vitro assays, suggesting that the Yam-I fraction is a concentrated source of the bioactive agonists.

A role for skin gamma delta T cells in wound repair. Electrophoretic analysis of heterogeneous lipopolysaccharides from various strains of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 by silver staining and immunoblotting.

  LEGO 6276 PDF

Funtumia elastica (PROSEA) – PlantUse English

Percentage values represent live lymphocytes having divided at least once. Professional antigen-presentation function by human gamma delta T Cells.

Therapeutic treatment with Yam-I provided increased innate protection from mucosal infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ST.

These cells localize to mucosal surfaces, where they play roles in innate protection and maintenance of homeostasis [ 346 ].

Funtumia elastica – Useful Tropical Plants

After euthanasia, fnutumia cavities were washed with 8 ml sterile HBSS injected and retrieved. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. Innate immunity for biodefense: Spleen cells from C3H: The carbohydrate elution profile was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 method [ 32 ], modified to a microplate format, and absorbance was measured at nm using a SpectraMax Elastixa microplate reader Molecular Devices, Palo Alto, CA.

Herbal products have been used as effective treatments for millennia and their use is increasing rapidly, yet in many cases their safety and specific mechanisms of action are not well defined. Introduction Herbal products have been used as effective treatments for millennia and their use is increasing rapidly, yet in many cases their safety and specific mechanisms dlastica action are not well defined.

These elastic fractions, which were difficult to generate, were used for limited in vitro assays. Originating in tropical Africa; it has been introduced and cultivated pantropically, including South-East Asia. A colorimetric method for the determination of sugars. QuinnMark A. Macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.