Foreign relations of the United States - Wikipedia
The foreign relations of Yemen are the relationships and policies that Yemen maintains with other countries. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, and the Organisation .. Japan, South Korea, Spain and Germany also made changes to their security arrangements and embassy accessibility. In addition to. Results 1 - 20 of 48 The war in Yemen has been a disaster for U.S. interests, for Saudi franchise since it attempted several attacks on the United States. Relations between the two countries, long bound by common interests in oil and Iran · North Korea · Turkey · Syria · China · Mexico · Russia · Venezuela · Iraq The United States, first through its oil industry and then through . Mohammed bin Salman launched an intervention in Yemen's civil war in.
In early the PDRY and the YAR established a joint-venture company for the exploration and development of the oilfields along their common border ibid. The Characteristics of Yemeni Economy The characteristics of the Yemeni economy can be summarized by following five factors; 1 the process of unification, 2 the scale of the unrecorded economy, 3 the government's failure to disclose data relating to the production and distribution of drug qat, 4 the pattern of economic activity involving Yemenis abroad, and 5 the institutional limitations on the collection and processing of data EIU Country ProfileOman and Yemen; The basic statistics of Yemen sees as following Table1.
Unification brought together two sharply differing economic systems. In North Yemen the private sector was the main mechanism of economic activity, and government policy was relatively liberal.
With GDP about one-fifth the size of its northern counterpart, South Yemen implemented central planning and rigid price controls. The major sectors of the economy were administered by state-owned institutions. Consequently, patterns of demand were severely distorted. The economy of the united republic is a largely free market one, with most controls and restrictions. The unrecorded economy is at least as big as its formal counterpart. Casual observation reveals that economic activity is at a significantly higher level than is suggested in the official data and that Yemenis have access to imported consumer goods on a scale which contrasts markedly with the country's supposed poverty.
The existence of a parallel economy of such magnitude follows from four factors: First, the Central Bank has failed to maintain parity between the official rate of exchange and that offered on the parallel market. Second, both North and South Yemen and the united republic have used import controls, in the form of licensing and punitive tariffs, in an attempt to stem the deterioration of the balance of payments. These cost considerations inflate the price of land limit access to imports obtained through official channels, inducing Yemenis to take advantage of the third factor in the informal economy, the country's extensive and sophisticated smuggling network.
Yemen is both an entrep? Shipments of alcohol landed on the Red Sea coast are traded up into Saudi Arabia - where alcohol is banned - while cars and trucks are driven back from the kingdom and sold, unlicensed, in Yemen.
A proliferation of consumer goods is sucked into, and through, in this way in unrecorded patterns of trade which extend throughout the Arabian peninsula and down the east coast of Africa. The existence of this network relies on the fourth factor underpinning the informal economy, the weakness of government authority outside urban centres.
Foreign relations of Yemen
The majority of Yemenis chew the stimulant shrub, qat most days from early afternoon to evening. The habit is less prevalent in the southern governorates and is rare in the eastern regions.
The production and distribution mechanisms involved in satisfying this enormous demand are sophisticated and highly dynamic. Qat is taxed by the government while in transit to market, although no doubt a significant proportion of the crop escapes excise. However, no official data are published on this sector. Economic activity by Yemenis abroad as it affects their homeland is obscured by uncertainty as to the size and nature of the large expatriate community.
The true scale of the inflows of remittances from short-term migrants and of capital from long-term residents overseas is difficult to determine because of the practice of remitting goods rather than cash and transmitting funds through family networks.
The institutional limitations affecting the collection and collation of economic data arise largely from the lack of trained personnel. While there are some highly qualified and skilled members of of the civil service, they are thinly spread.
Training has been identified as a crucial requirement of strengthening Yemen's capabilities ibid. Economic Situation in Yemen after Unification The most important things in the Government of the republic of Yemen, which were united on May 22are to develop the country's economic infrastructure and to improve relations with other Arab states.
In particular, the Government has to resolve longstanding border disputes with neighbouring Saudi Arabia and Oman. There remained great difficulties, as the economies of the two former Yemeni States began to merge after Maythat economic disparities between the two former States might lead to factionalism in the new Government.
An increase in Yemen's foreign debt, which has been attributed to the level of indebtedness of the former PDRY, has been identified as one potential source of conflict within the Government. There have also been some signs of social unrest in those parts of Yemen which formerly belonged to the PDRY.
Rising prices there have led to industrial action and calls for a general strike. In the course of confusion Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August has placed Yemen in an especially difficult position. The economy of Yemen is heavily dependent on trade with, and aid from, Iraq, and also on aid from Saudi Arabia, which normally hosts very large numbers of Yemeni expatriate workers.
Yemen's relations with Saudi Arabia have deteriorated as a result of Yemen's initial strong opposition to the presence of foreign armed forces in the Gulf and the ambiguous stance it has subsequently adopted in this respect. On 15 Septemberin what was regarded as a retaliatory move, Saudi Arabia announced that it had withdrawn the privileges which Yemeni workers in Saudi Arabia had previously enjoyed.
The unified Yemen's principal economic aim is to expand the country's industrial base by developing its infrastructure. Central to the government's economic plan is the creation of a Free Trade Zone at the port of Aden which, will induce a high level of new investment.
The new Government has stated that it will allow freedom of economic activity and encourage the private sector. The development of the country's mineral resources, especially of gold reserves in Hadhramaut province, is also a priority task. The recent economic structure of Yemen is shown in Table 2.
Foreign relations of the United States
Yemen, however, has implemented the economic sanctions imposed by the UN on Iraq following its occupation of Kuwait in August Therefore the country's economic development plans delayed and disrupted by the trade embargo, since the economy is heavily dependent on trade with, and aid from, Iraq. Trade with Kuwait and assistance from Kuwait-based development funds are also important.
The contribution of expatriate worker's remittances to the economy is further threatened by the decision of Saudi Arabia to terminate the privileges of Yemeni workers there, in retaliation for the Yemeni Government's refusal to support the presence of foreign armed forces in the Gulf. By the end of September it was estimated that some 40, of the ,m. Yemeni workers in Saudi Arabia before the Gulf crisis had returned to Yemen ibid.
- ‘There Is an American Imprint on Every Single Civilian Death Inside Yemen’
- United States–Yemen relations
- U.S. Department of State
The formal economy has a number of distinctive features. Although agriculture provides nearly two-thirds of employment, in terms of value-added the economy is dominated by the services sector, predominantly government and trade, which contributes over half GDP. However, this activity is almost exclusively domestic in orientation. This degree of reliance on a single commodity makes the Yemeni economy extremely vulnerable to fluctuations in the international oil market, and confidence in the long-term potential of the Yemeni oil industry has been dented by the effects of the war.
In recent years expatriate remittances have contributed between a quarter and a half of all inward current payments. However, much of this inflow has been directly recycled into purchasing imports and, because of the weakness of local production, consumption and investment are heavily import reliant. As a whole the economy is at low level of integration with only weak linkages between various sectors.
The distribution system remains primitive, with much of the country isolated from the main urban centres where services are concentrated EIU Country Profile; Yemen ; Official rates are YR Political life in the united Yemen was carried out against the backdrop of the catastrophic effects of the Gulf Crisis and war. Yemen's failure to support the US-led military action against Iraq, eventhough the relations between Yemen and Saudi Arabia after border crisis in January has been improving, incurred deep hostility from Saudi Arabia, the majority of the other Gulf monarchies, the USA and the UK.
The UN trade embargo imposed on Iraq and Kuwait severed imports of Iraqi crude oil and forced Yemen to divert a considerable proportion of its own high-quality crude to domestic consumption.
In addition, the Aden refinery lost the fees previously generated by processing Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil. This development cut off a traditionally vital source of foreign currency and presented major problems in absorbing the returnees.
With foreign exchange resources limited and required to subsidise essential imports, direct development spending must be limited to the provision of basic infrastructure. Therefore the government of the unified Yemen aims to work closely with bilateral and multilateral donors from whom it hopes to obtain funding for projects to provide water supplies, health care and roads. The YFZPA and the fovernment of Yemen have been emphasized the importance of training and education and jointly develop programs to meet the needs of the Free Zone.
The government hopes to develop the country as an Asian Model, which Japan, Taiwan, and Korea had invested heavily in the rapid development of skills for members of their workforce. The government believes that the return on this investment can be seen by the increased productivity of the workforce as well as the higher wage levels associated with the advanced technological output.
Currently, the authority is concentrating on establishing a free zone at the port of Aden. It includes provisions for full foreign ownership of enterprises within the zone and for tax exemptions for non-national employees. It also contains guarantees against nationalization, exemptions from customs duties and taxes on transactions within the zone, and provisions for subsidies on land, water, electricity and other infrastructure.
It has also called for the privatization of the local airport and harbour facilities ibid. At present, the government of Yemen envisages that the industry will be developed in the direction of processing the country's agricultural, fishery and mineral resources primarily for export.
In this strategy it is expected that the port city of Aden have a crucial role for the economic development of Yemen. Really the government has emphasized that Aden will become a free zone since the unification. This will not only require huge investment, but it will also take some time to develop.
In Yemen that has possessed insufficient capital, however, the development of Aden port will be a great burden to Yemen in the process of the economic development. Yemeni Foreign Trade and its Relations with Korea 1 Foreign Trade of Yemen The move to market economy since the unification in transforms considerably the economic situation of the industry and long-term policies presiding over its development.
Furthermore, as the move to liberalize the economy has been slow and that economic reforms have not yet been finalized and will be deployed over several years, the Yemeni industry is therefore operating under conditions of uncertainty. Consequently, while an industrial strategy is an undoubtful necessity, specific transitional policies and measures are an immediate and short-term imperative. This has to be related to the rise in local demand and in parallel to the weak development of the local manufacturing industry, its low performance and its internal market orientation A Seminar Report, January ; Because of the paucity of their domestic resource and manufacturing bases both North and South Yemen registered large deficits on their trade accounts, neither of which have been in surplus since records began.
The start of large-scale oil exports by North Yemen improved total aggregate export earnings more than fivefold in riyal terms between and However, the trade account remains in deficit and rising oil production cannot be relied upon to close the gap.
Domestic demand for imports is expected to grow following a construction in which reflected the suspension of oil imports from Iraq and Kuwait in the final months of the year.
Although imports also fell in andthe trade deficit deteriorated 1nbefore recovering in and EIU Country Profile; Yemen ; Canned fish and fruit are other important exports.
Yemen is also heavily dependent on foreign supplies for machinery, cars and manufactured consumer goods.
Foreign relations of Yemen - Wikipedia
If the government pursues its current policy of orienting industrial development to establishing resource processing export orientations then Yemen will continue to rely on overseas manufacturers. Despite the dominant position of cereals within the agricultural sector, Yemeni farmers fail to satisfy domestic demand and cereals are a major food import.
Until sanctions were imposed in AugustYemen had imported the bulk of its domestic oil needs from Iraq for processing at Aden refinery.
Despite its geographical position, Yemen has not exploited the oil markets of the Far East. What is your response? The Saudis are hitting civilian targets on purpose. They are blatantly ignoring the no-strike lists that we give them. At some point, you have to actually believe what you see. The number of civilian targets that are being hit are increasing, not decreasing, and the coalition is admitting to hitting civilian targets. Mattis and Pompeo recently called for a cease-fire in Yemen.
Are you encouraged by what looks like a renewed effort by the administration to end the violence? I think the administration is feeling some political heat here.
But again for there to be a cease-fire and a real political process the secretary of state and the secretary of defense have to really put some work into this. When this administration refuses to have any dialogue with Iran, despite the fact that they seem to be gleefully excited about talking to North Korea, it makes it hard to solve big problems in the Middle East. It looks like the midterm elections could increase the number of Democrats in Congress.
What impact would this have on the U. In a Democrat-controlled Congress, you could actually get a debate on arms sales to Saudi Arabia to the House floor. Control of the House is really meaningful if you are trying to put a check on the president when it comes to selling Saudi Arabia the bombs they are using to kill people in Yemen.
Regardless of what happens after this election, I think there is now a pretty good bipartisan coalition in the House to end U. The war, the humanitarian crisis, has gotten worse. How much leverage does the United States actually have to end the war? I think we have tremendous leverage. It would take them years if not a decade to transition their military toward Russian-based offensive weapons.
By having the United States integrated into this campaign, the Saudis are very much immune from international criticism. I think it will be much harder for them to stand up to international criticism if the United States pulls out because of the war crimes that are likely being committed.