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Political Science studies Politics i.e. all political relations and interactions in Politics is concerned with the day to day actual activities of the Government. cck/cckintrotext::Comparative Politics and Government at Oxford The and relationships that account for stability and change in political economy. The relationship between politics and government are as follow: Government refers to the group of people that run the country while politics refers to the.
Etymology[ edit ] Women voter outreach from The book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the midth century as "Polettiques";  it became "politics" in Modern English. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Generally, this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another.
State polity The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Historically speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare.
Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the " divine right of kings ". Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as BC in Sumeria  to the 21st century AD British Monarchy.
Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy. The king often, even in absolute monarchiesruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute.
One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers.
Forms of political organization[ edit ] There are many forms of political organizationincluding states, non-government organizations NGOs and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are perhaps the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power.
According to Aristotle, states are classified into monarchiesaristocraciestimocraciesdemocraciesoligarchiesand tyrannies. Due to changes across the history of politics, this classification has been abandoned. All states are varieties of a single organizational form, the sovereign state.
All the great powers of the modern world rule on the principle of sovereignty. Sovereign power may be vested on an individual as in an autocratic government or it may be vested on a group as in a constitutional government.
Constitutions are written documents that specify and limit the powers of the different branches of government. In practice there is a strong relationship between economics and politics because the performance of the economy is one of the key political battlegrounds. Many economic issues are inherently political because they lend themselves to different opinions.
Political ideology influencing economic thought Many economic issues are seen through the eyes of political beliefs. For example, some people are instinctively more suspicious of government intervention. Therefore, they prefer economic policies which seek to reduce government interference in the economy.
The relationship between economics and politics | Economics Help
On the other hand, economists may have a preference for promoting greater equality in society and be more willing to encourage government intervention to pursue that end.
If you set different economists to report on the desirability of income tax cuts for the rich, their policy proposals are likely to reflect their political preferences. You can always find some evidence to support the benefits of tax cuts, you can always find some evidence to support the benefits of higher tax.
They may produce a paper that perhaps challenges their previous views. Despite their preferences, they may find there is no case for rail privatisation, or perhaps they find tax cuts do actually increase economic welfare. However, for a politician, they can use those economists and economic research which backs their political view. There were just as many economists suggesting this was not a good idea, but economists can be promoted by their political sponsors.
In the US, the Paul Ryan budget proposals were welcomed by many Republicans because they promised tax cuts for better off, cutting welfare benefits and balancing the budget.
Many economists may be generally supportive of the EU and European co-operation, but the evidence from the Euro single currency is that it caused many economic problems of low growth, deflation and trade imbalances.
Economics needs political support If you study economics, you can make quite a convincing case for a Pigovian tax — a tax which makes people pay the full social cost of the good, and not just the private cost. This principle of making the polluter pay provides a case for Carbon Taxcongestion charges, alcohol tax, and tobacco tax e.
However, whether these policies get implemented depends on whether there is political support for them.
Comparative Politics and Government at Oxford
For example, a congestion charge was proposed for Manchester, but it was very heavily defeated in a referendum. A new tax is rarely popular. As an economist, I would like to see more congestion charging because it makes economic sense.