Symptoms may stem from normal development (for example, infant regurgitation), There is an interactive relationship between psychosocial and biomedical factors in the clinical A range of psychological and social factors, including mood, attention, of biological, emotional, cognitive, social and environmental factors. Aug 1, The influence of biological, social, and developmental factors on .. relation between prematurity and mental development at 2–3 years, and. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal the relationships between health and behavioral, psychological, and social.
The early embryonic genome undergoes several phases of genome-wide epigenetic change that establish and maintain the distinctive, somatic cell lines that make up specific tissues. These early modifications create a kind of genetic tabula rasa for the epigenetic reprogramming of cellular diversity Boyce and Kobor, Only by such divergent activation of genes could so many tissue types emerge from a single, common genome and ensure the stability of each cell type over generations of cell division.
Differential gene expression also guides the differentiation of cellular functions, for example, the development of neurons into unique subsets, the guidance of axon growth, and the spatial organization of brain development Fox et al. At the same time, epigenetic processes also are called upon for adaptive, dynamic responses later in development, such as those a child makes to changing environmental conditions like exposures to severe adversity and stress. This epigenetic modification of a regulatory region in the glucocorticoid receptor gene increases its expression, thereby blunting cortisol reactivity.
Paradoxical though they may be, the uses and functions of epigenetic processes play critically important roles in the successful emergence of social, educational, and biological capacities.
There is evidence that perturbations in such brain circuits are related to genetic and epigenetic processes Lesch, ; Norman et al. Environmental conditions produce patterns of cellular signals in the brain, and these neural signals remodel epigenetic marks, which modify the expression of genes controlling brain development. Further, the processes that influence postnatal development, learning, and health also can be mediated by epigenetic events controlling neuroregulatory genes.
Social dominance and rearing conditions in nonhuman primates, for example, are associated with epigenetic variation in the immune system Cole et al. In human research, epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene in brain cells have been identified in suicide victims with a history of child abuse McGowan et al.
Most recently, new research has revealed that epigenetic, molecular processes may sometimes underlie GxE interactions Klengel et al.
Specifically, an epidemiologically observed interaction between childhood trauma and an SNP in a cortisol response-regulating gene predicts symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in adulthood. Laboratory investigation of this GxE interaction revealed that the effect is mediated through epigenetic changes in a cortisol response element in the gene.
This observation shows how chromatin modification and epigenetic marks may be a molecular mechanism for GxE interactions.
Interplay of Genes and Environment: The adaptations that occur as a result of these mutual interactions mean that the early experiences and early learning environments that adults provide can affect all domains of human development. In sum, a new and promising body of research is producing evidence, in both animal and human studies, that many variations in human developmental and educational trajectories have early origins in early childhood Shonkoff and Garner, ; are the products of gene—environment interplay Rutter, ; and influence developing neural circuits and processes that are directly linked to long-term trajectories of health, disease, and life achievement Fox et al.
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This research may signal a period of remarkable progress in understanding the extensive interplay among social Page 70 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men.
Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes.
Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia.
Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition, internalization, dissatisfaction with muscularity and body-related self-esteem using longitudinal study designs. Limitations concern the cross-sectional design of the study, self-reported body composition measures and the homogeneity of the sample. Similar to female body ideals growing ever thinner, the male ideal has come to be increasingly muscular over the last decades Pope et al.
Also, the appearance of half-naked male bodies in the media has grown steadily Pope et al. It was shown, that even a brief presentation of pictures of muscular men lead men to report a greater discrepancy between their own muscularity and the level of muscularity which they ideally wanted to possess Leit et al. Increasing numbers of gym subscriptions, men-oriented magazines Pope et al. With increasing pressure to achieve this ideal, negative effects such as body dissatisfaction or body shame are likely.
Body dissatisfaction, media pressure, and negative affect are some of the factors potentially leading to muscle dysmorphia MDan extreme form of distorted body image Olivardia et al. MD refers to a pathological preoccupation of not being sufficiently large and muscular, while usually being more muscular than the average person Pope et al. Also related to negative male body image is the misuse of performance enhancing substances, which can lead to negative physiological Kanayama et al.
Thus, a growing field of research is engaged in investigating factors that may have a negative influence on male body image Ricciardelli et al. It reflects the extent to which individuals strive to become more muscular and can be represented in attitudes e. Taken to the extreme, drive for muscularity can lead to MD, just as drive for thinness can reach pathological degrees resulting in eating disorders Robert et al.
Biological, Behavioral, and Social Factors Affecting Health - Health and Behavior - NCBI Bookshelf
The preoccupation for lean muscularity and thus the drive for muscularity are found to be the strongest in bodybuilding and weight-training men Hallsworth et al. They are also generally at a higher risk for developing a pathological engagement with their bodies than men not engaged in these kinds of sports Blouin and Goldfield, ; Nieuwoudt et al.
Still, factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men have scarcely been investigated, but instead college and community samples have been used e. The factors associated with the drive for muscularity can be roughly divided in biological, psychological, and sociocultural categories. Diehl and Baghurst suggested the biopsychosocial model as a framework for investigating drive for muscularity and MD. The biopsychosocial model refers to a holistic approach of conceptualizing disorders as being influenced by biological, psychological, social, and behavioral dimensions Engel, Engel developed his model in response to inadequacies with the traditional biomedical model.
He argued that psychological distress can have physical manifestations and vice versa with social and cultural environments influencing these manifestations. As suggested by Lanethe biopsychosocial model is also useful for testing theories and exploring characteristics of different psychological disorders.
In line with this, it has been argued that a multidisciplinary approach like the biopsychosocial framework was possibly the most exhaustive and logical way to examine MD Olivardia, This may help identify factors influencing this condition in order to help develop prevention or treatment programs Diehl and Baghurst, Thus, the following potential factors of influence are structured using the biopsychosocial framework, operationalizing all study variables into biological, psychological and sociocultural factors.
So far, biological factors like age or body composition have only been scarcely investigated in relation to drive for muscularity, especially not in weight-training samples. Using college or community samples, little to no association with drive for muscularity was found. Another study on college aged men found no connection with anthropometric measures, including body fat percentage and FFMI Chittester and Hausenblas, Similarly, to our knowledge, the impact of age on drive for muscularity has only scarcely been investigated.
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It is assumed that age, especially the time of puberty and the bodily and hormonal changes associated with it, are related to muscle building behavior. Although pubertal timing in boys is marked by general muscular growth, the engagement in body change strategies, such as exercising and use of food supplements, finds its onset here as well Cafri et al.
Therefore, this might be a time where drive for muscularity starts developing. One study found that body dissatisfaction and drive for muscularity are lower in middle-aged and older man than in early adults Bucchianeri et al. With regard to psychological factors associated with drive for muscularity, low self-esteem has been identified by different authors in adolescent boys McCreary and Sasse, and college aged men Chittester and Hausenblas, Generally, associations between lower self-esteem and muscularity-related variables were found in boys Ricciardelli and McCabe, and college students Olivardia et al.
More specifically, Grossbard et al. Comparing bodybuilding and weight-training men with physically active controls, it was found, that bodybuilders showed lower self-esteem than the control group Blouin and Goldfield, Another factor associated with drive for muscularity is body dissatisfaction Cafri et al. In one study, expressed dissatisfaction significantly predicted drive for muscularity in male college students Pritchard et al.
Similarly, body dissatisfaction was found to be a significant predictor for drive for muscularity in adolescent boys Mustapic et al. More specifically, Tylka found that muscle dissatisfaction was related to muscularity-related behavior e. Contrariwise, a recent study reported no relation between muscle dissatisfaction and drive for muscularity-related behavior in regularly exercising men Stratton et al.
Also, it was reported that weight-training and bodybuilding men showed higher degrees of body dissatisfaction than men not engaging in these kinds of sports Mangweth et al. Associated with body dissatisfaction is body ideal internalization Grieve, of socially prescribed male body ideals, spread through mass media. In a sample of male college students, Parent and Moradi found positive interrelations between degree of internalization and drive for muscularity.
Media body ideal internalization also revealed to be an important factor for drive for muscularity in adult men Daniel and Bridges, ; Edwards et al. According to Stratton et al. In their study, internalization of the media body ideal was related to muscle dissatisfaction, but not directly to drive for muscularity behaviors in physically active men Stratton et al. Moreover, sociocultural factors such as teasing or critique by peers and parents have been suggested as related to drive for muscularity.
While some studies on school-aged boys found significant correlations between the experience of being teased by parents, siblings, and peers and drive for muscularity Schaefer and Salafia,others found no connection between peer and parental teasing and drive for muscularity Smolak and Stein, Investigating MD symptoms in a sample of male bodybuilders, Boyda and Shevlin found a relation between childhood victimization, such as verbal, physical, and social bullying and MD.
It was argued, that regular critique and emotional victimization by parents Lamanna et al. More generally, it was found that negative appearance-based comments were associated with higher body dissatisfaction and higher driver for muscularity Nowell and Ricciardelli, In a sample of bodybuilders childhood bullying experience were associated with higher scores in MD Wolke and Sapouna,