Pompey - Wikipedia
When Julius Caesar and Pompey squared off in their Civil War, ruses, lies, and interrogations affected the outcome. In 49 B.C. on the banks of the Rubicon, Julius Caesar faced a critical ally of Pompey, who later developed a cordial relationship with Caesar. The First Triumvirate (so denominated by Cicero), comprising Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey, ascended to power with Caesar's election as consul, in 59 .
Revolts in the towns were further stirred up by these men. Sertorius killed some allies and sold others into slavery. Sertorius reacted with severe punishments and started using a bodyguard of Celtiberians instead of Romans. Moreover, he reproached his Roman soldiers for treachery. This aggrieved the soldiers because they felt that they were blamed for the desertion of other soldiers and because this was happening while they were serving under an enemy of the regime in Rome and therefore in a sense they were betraying their country through him.
Moreover, the Celtiberians treated them with contempt as men under suspicion. These facts made Sertorius unpopular; only his skill at command kept his troops from deserting en masse. Metellus took advantage of his enemy's poor morale, bringing many towns allied to Sertorius under subjection.
Pompey besieged Palantia until Sertorius showed up to relieve the city. Pompey set fire to the city walls and retreated to Metellus.
Caesar's Civil War - Wikipedia
Sertorius rebuilt the wall and then attacked his enemies who were encamped around the castle of Calagurris. They lost men. In 72 BC, there were only skirmishes. However, Metellus and Pompey advanced on several towns. Some of them defected and some were attacked. He was defeated continually. He became hot-tempered, suspicious and cruel in punishment. Perpenna began to fear for his safety and conspired to murder Sertorius.
He had gone to Hispania with the remnants of the army of Lepidus in Sardinia and had wanted to fight this war independently to gain glory. He had joined Sertorius reluctantly because his troops wanted to do so when they heard that Pompey was coming to Hispania. He wanted to take over the supreme command. The native troops, especially the Lusitanians, who had given Sertorius the greatest support, were angry, too. Perpenna responded with the carrot and the stick: He secured the obedience of his troops, but not their true loyalty.
Metellus left the fight against Perpenna to Pompey. The two skirmished for nine days. Then, as Perpenna did not think that his men would remain loyal for long, he marched into battle but Pompey ambushed and defeated him.
Frontinus wrote about the battle in his stratagems: Pompey put troops here and there, in places where they could attack from ambush. Then, pretending fear, he pulled back drawing the enemy after him. Then, when he had the enemy exposed to the ambuscade, he wheeled his army about. He attacked, slaughtering the enemy to his front and on both flanks  Pompey won against a poor commander and a disaffected army.
Perpenna hid in a thicket, fearing his troops more than the enemy, and was eventually captured.
Perpenna offered to produce letters to Sertorius from leading men in Rome who had invited Sertorius to Italy for seditious purposes. Pompey, fearing that this might lead to an even greater war, had Perpenna executed and burned the letters without even reading them. He showed a talent for efficient organisation and fair administration in the conquered province. This extended his patronage throughout Hispania and into southern Gaul.
Crassus was given eight legions and led the final phase of the war. He asked the senate to summon Lucullus and Pompey back from the Third Mithridatic War and Hispania respectively to provide reinforcements, "but he was sorry now that he had done so, and was eager to bring the war to an end before those generals came.
He knew that the success would be ascribed to the one who came up with assistance, and not to himself. On hearing this, Crassus hurried to engage in the decisive battle, and routed the rebels. On his arrival, Pompey cut to pieces 6, fugitives from the battle. Pompey wrote to the senate that Crassus had conquered the rebels in a pitched battle, but that he himself had extirpated the war entirely. He was asked to stand for the consulship, even though he was only 35 and thus below the age of eligibility to the consulship, and had not held any public office, much less climbed the cursus honorum the progression from lower to higher offices.
Livy noted that Pompey was made consul after a special senatorial decree, because he had not occupied the quaestorship and was an equestrian and did not have senatorial rank. In the Life of Pompey Plutarch wrote that Pompey "had long wanted an opportunity of doing him some service and kindness About half of the people feared that he would not disband his army and that he would seize absolute power by arms and hand power to the Sullans.
Pompey, instead, declared that he would disband his army after his triumph and then "there remained but one accusation for envious tongues to make, namely, that he devoted himself more to the people than to the senate In the Life of Crassus, Plutarch wrote that the two men differed on almost every measure, and by their contentiousness rendered their consulship "barren politically and without achievement, except that Crassus made a great sacrifice in honour of Hercules and gave the people a great feast and an allowance of grain for three months".
Pompey did not react, but Crassus "clasped him by the hand" and said that it was not humiliating for him to take the first step of goodwill. Plutarch wrote that "Crassus, for all his self-approval, did not venture to ask for the major triumph, and it was thought ignoble and mean in him to celebrate even the minor triumph on foot, called the ovation a minor victory celebrationfor a servile war. In Appian's account there was no disbanding of armies. The two commanders refused to disband their armies and kept them stationed near the city, as neither wanted to be the first to do so.
Pompey said that he was waiting the return of Metellus for his Spanish triumph; Crassus said that Pompey ought to dismiss his army first. Initially, pleas from the people were of no avail, but eventually Crassus yielded and offered Pompey the handshake. As part of the constitutional reforms Sulla carried out after his second civil warhe revoked the power of the tribunes to veto the senatus consulta the written advice of the senate on bills, which was usually followed to the letterand prohibited ex-tribunes from ever holding any other office.
Ambitious young plebeians had sought election to this tribunate as a stepping stone for election to other offices and to climb up the cursus honorum. Therefore, the plebeian tribunate became a dead end for one's political career. He also limited the ability of the plebeian council the assembly of the plebeians to enact bills by reintroducing the senatus auctoritas, a pronouncement of the senate on bills that, if negative, could invalidate them. The reforms reflected Sulla's view of the hated plebeian tribunate as a source of subversion that roused the "rabble" the plebeians against the aristocracy.
Naturally, these measures were unpopular among the plebeians, the majority of the population. Plutarch wrote that Pompey "had determined to restore the authority of the tribunate, which Sulla had overthrown, and to court the favour of the many" and commented that, "There was nothing on which the Roman people had more frantically set their affections, or for which they had a greater yearning, than to behold that office again.
In 'The Life of Crassus', Plutarch did not mention this repeal and, as mentioned above, he only wrote that Pompey and Crassus disagreed on everything and that as a result their consulship did not achieve anything. Yet, the restoration of tribunician powers was a highly significant measure and a turning point in the politics of the late Republic.
This measure must have been opposed by the aristocracy and it would have been unlikely that it would have been passed if the two consuls had opposed each other. Crassus does not feature much in the writings of the ancient sources. Unfortunately, the books of Livy, otherwise the most detailed of the sources, which cover this period have been lost.
However, the Periochae, a short summary of Livy's work, records that "Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Pompey were made consuls Campaign against the pirates[ edit ] A denarius of Pompey minted BC Piracy in the Mediterranean became a large-scale problem. A large network of pirates coordinated operations over wide areas with large fleets. According to Cassius Dio, many years of war contributed to this. Many war fugitives joined them. Pirates were more difficult to catch or break up than bandits.
The pirates pillaged coastal fields and towns. Rome was affected through shortages of imports and in the supply of corn, but the Romans did not pay proper attention to the problem. Cassius Dio wrote that these operations caused greater distress for Rome's allies.
It was thought that a war against the pirates would be big and expensive and that it was impossible to attack all the pirates at once or to drive them back everywhere. As not much was done against them, some towns were turned into pirate winter quarters and raids further inland were carried out.
Many pirates settled on land in various places and relied on an informal network of mutual assistance. Towns in Italy were also attacked, including Ostiathe port of Rome: The pirates seized important Romans and demanded large ransoms.
This suggested that Mithridates fostered piracy as a means to weaken the Romans. Plutarch also thought that with the civil wars in Rome the Romans left the sea unguarded, which gave the pirates the confidence to lay waste islands and coastal cities in addition to attacking ships at sea.
Piracy spread from its original base in Cilicia on the southern coast of modern Turkey. The pirates also seized and ransomed some towns.
Men of distinction also got involved in piracy. Plutarch claimed that pirates had more than 1, ships, that they captured towns and plundered temples in Greece and sacred and inviolable sanctuaries, listing fourteen of them. He cited the praetors Sextilius and Bellinus and the daughter of Antonius among the important Romans who were seized for a ransom. The pirates also mocked their captives if they were Romans.
Piracy spread over the whole of the Mediterranean, making it unnavigable and closed to trade. This caused scarcity of provisions. The destitute people who lost their livelihood became pirates. At first, they scoured the sea with a few small boats. As the war dragged on they became more numerous and used larger ships.
When the war ended piracy continued. They sailed in squadrons. They besieged towns or took them by storm and plundered them. They kidnapped rich people for a ransom. The ragged part of the Cilician coast became their main area for anchorage and encampment and the Crags of Cilicia the promontory of Coracesium became their main base. It also attracted men from PamphyliaPontusCyprusSyria and elsewhere in the east. There were quickly tens of thousands of pirates and they dominated the whole Mediterranean.
They defeated some Roman naval commanders, even off the coast of Sicily. The sea became unsafe. This disrupted trade and some lands remained untilled, leading to food shortages and hunger in Rome. Eliminating such a scattered and large force from no particular country and of an intangible and lawless nature seemed a difficult task.
Parts of Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory. Only a small part of that area became a Roman province. He won several naval victories off Cilicia and occupied the coasts of nearby Lycia and Pamphylia. He received his agnomen of Isaurus because he defeated the Isauri who lived in the core of the Taurus Mountainswhich bordered on Cilicia.
He incorporated Isauria into the province of Cilicia Pedias.
However, much of Cilicia Paedia belonged to the kingdom of Armenia. Cilicia Trachea was still under the control of the pirates. He was to be empowered to pick fifteen lieutenants from the senate and assign specific areas to them. He was allowed to have ships, levy as many soldiers and oarsmen as he needed and collect as much money from the tax collectors and the public treasuries as he wished.Rome Caesar and Pompey battle HD
The use of treasury in the plural might suggest power to raise funds from treasures of the allied Mediterranean states as well. The senators nearly killed Pompey. This outraged the people, who set upon the senators. They all ran away, except for the consul Gaius Piso, who was arrested.
Pompey and Julia
Gabinius had him freed. The optimates tried to persuade the other nine plebeian tribunes to oppose the bill. Only two, Trebellius and Roscius, agreed, but they were unable to do so.
Pompey tried to appear as if he was forced to accept the command because of the jealousy that would be caused if he would lay claim to the post and the glory that came with it. Cassius Dio commented that Pompey was "always in the habit of pretending as far as possible not to desire the things he really wished.
Gabinius postponed the vote and introduced a motion to remove him from the tribunate, which passed. Roscius did not dare to speak, but suggested with a gesture that two commanders should be chosen. The people booed him loudly. The law was passed and the senate ratified it reluctantly. He gave details of the acrimony of the speeches against Pompey. One of the senators proposed that Pompey should be given a colleague.
Only Caesar supported the law and in Plutarch's view he did so "not because he cared in the least for Pompey, but because from the outset he sought to ingratiate himself with the people and win their support. Instead they shouted loudly. The assembly was dissolved.
On the day of the vote Pompey withdrew to the countryside. The Lex Gabinia was passed. Pompey extracted further concessions and received ships,infantry, 5, cavalry and twenty-four lieutenants. With the prospect of a campaign against the pirates the prices of provisions fell. Pompey divided the sea and the coast into thirteen districts, each with a commander with his own forces. The lieutenants were twenty-five. He listed them and their areas of command as follows: Tiberius Nero and Manlius Torquatus: Italy ; Plotius Varus and Terentius Varro: Pompey made a tour of the whole.
He cleared the western Mediterranean in forty days, proceeded to Brundisium Brindisi and cleared the eastern Mediterranean in the same amount of time.
The pirates escaped to Cilicia. Pompey attacked Cilicia with his sixty best ships; after that he cleared the Tyrrhenian SeaCorsicaSardiniaSicily and the Libyan Sea in forty days with the help of his lieutenants.
Meanwhile, the consul Piso sabotaged Pompey's equipment and discharged his crews. Pompey went to Rome.
The markets in Rome now were well stocked with provisions again and the people acclaimed Pompey. Piso was nearly stripped of his consulship, but Pompey prevented Aulus Gabinius from proposing a bill to this effect. He set sail again and reached Athens. He then defeated the Cilician pirates off the promontory of Coracesium. He then besieged them and they surrendered together with the islands and towns they controlled. The latter were fortified and difficult to take by storm.
Pompey seized many ships. He spared the lives of 20, pirates. He resettled some of them in the city of Soli, which had recently been devastated by Tigranes the Greatthe king of Armenia. Most were resettled in Dyme in AchaeaGreece, which was underpopulated and had plenty of good land. Some pirates were received by the half-deserted cities of Cilicia.
Pompey thought that they would abandon their old ways and be softened by a change of place, new customs and a gentler way of life. However, he did not have to. His reputation and the magnitude of his preparations provoked panic and the pirates surrendered, hoping to be treated leniently because of this. They gave up large quantities of weapons, ships and ship building materials. Pompey destroyed the material, took away the ships and sent some of the captured pirates back to their countries.
He recognised that they had undertaken piracy due to the poverty caused by the mentioned war and settled many of them in MallusAdana Epiphania or any other uninhabited or thinly peopled town in Cilicia. He sent some to Dyme in Achaea.
According to Appian, the war against the pirates lasted only a few days. Pompey captured 71 ships and ships were surrendered. He seized towns and fortresses and killed about 10, pirates in battles. The leniency with which he treated the pirates who surrendered was 'equally great' and won over many pirates who went over to his side.
Pompey passed a provincial law which meant that there had to be a five year moratorium between a man holding magistracy and a pro- magistracy. This would mean he would have to wait for his chance to expand his reputation and wealth, and leave him in Rome where his enemies in the Senate would do everything to stop him gaining more power. However Pompey personally exempted Caesar from the Gracchan consular provinces law that required personal attendance in Rome as a consul.
Caesar was physically weakened when in 50BC he lost two of his legions in Gaul. Following the disaster Carrhae, there were concerns with security in Syria and to soothe this, Pompey and Caesar were required to pledge a legion each. Caesar sent one of his legions from Gaul, but Pompey recalled one of the legions he had loaned to Caesar,14 so Caesar lost two whole legions from his forces in Gaul.
What is worse is that these men did not go to Syria; in fact they never left Italy. For Caesar, returning to Rome was looking formidable. This is possibly why he attempted to make conciliatory moves with the Senate on several occasions, such as proposing a joint disarmament in 49BC, but these were rejected. Pompey too lay at fault for the outbreak of the civil war, and according to Gruen, was the man responsible for the downfall of the old republic.
He is therefore in the perfect position to control what happens in the Senate when the riots occurred in 52BC. The Senate turned to Pompey to restore order and offered him a dictatorship.
Pompey refused this post as it was against the constitution and instead accepted a sole consulship for the rest of 52BC. Being a constitutionalist, this meant that he had the freedom of actions that came with the position, he was single dominant figure in the republic, and yet he still made himself accountable for his actions. However, Edwards notes that Pompey allowed a state of affairs to come into existence where there was no government at all. By 50BC, Pompey had turned the tables.
His re-emerging dominance in the Senate meant he had control and Caesar was dependant on him. These men were still hostile to Caesar but were accepting of Pompey and his increasing dominance. Pompey felt completely in control Caesar, and felt comfortable that if his former father-in-law stepped out of line in anyway, he would be dealt with in a way a disobedient or rebellious child is dealt with by a parent. However, it never appeared to be hostile. The classical Roman ideas of what an aristocrat and a member of the senate should act like and how other people should act towards him played its part in the outbreak of this Civil War, as it does in many contests between two high-ranking men.
Both men had held the highest offices of the cursus honorum, and were used to being dealt with in a respectful manner benefiting men of their station. He was no longer as the greatest general Rome had to offer, that accolade had passed to Caesar, and it is easy to imagine that Pompey would have gently passed into old age resting on his former glories; the man saw himself as Rome and the republic.
It is his sense of Dignitas, what made an aristocrat an aristocrat, which means he had to continue his service to the Republic in a way that only he could do. Caesar also claimed that Dignitas played it part in his actions. He claimed that the Senate had compromised his dignitas, and therefore he had to seek revenge for such and offence, which resulted in him crossing the Rubicon to deal with his enemies in Rome.
When Sulla had made his constitutional reforms, he had made it so no one could do as he did and simply seize power. However his aims to prevent another Sulla failed as after his death, his reforms fell apart and were undone by individuals while the Senate did nothing to stop them. A major problem was that Sulla was too good an example for those who wished to seize power. Sulla had tried to restrict the tribunate as well as the equites, but neither could be restricted for long; The tribunate was too important an office to be restricted, and the equites formed a major part of Roman society and therefore could not be ignored.
He was ambitious and often had the opportunity to abuse his powers, many of which were given to him specially in different circumstances. However as a constitutionalist, He was of conservative mentality, and like others such as Scipio Africanus, Scipio Aemilianus or Marius before him, he was willing to countenance extraordinary measures, but only to assure his dignitas and pre-eminence within the confines of the establishment.
The fact that three men could control Rome in the way the triumvirate did proved that the Sullan constitution was not upheld, but neither was any form of constitution by 50BC; the Senate had grown weak and its members concerns mainly focused on themselves. Similar to Pompey, the vast majority of the Senate did not want war. The issue is that in the Senate there was a core of men completely hostile to Caesar who wanted to destroy him. There was also the proposition to have him officially recalled, but this had been often called for and not granted presumably thanks to the agreement at Lucca.