While Islam permits polygyny, it does not require or impose it: marriage can only occur by mutual consent, and a bride can stipulate that her husband-to-be. Judging from women's clothing, contemporary Americans are polyandrous. Polygynous. The Mormon shift from polygamy to monogamy in the s reduced less than 1 percent of married men were in polygamous relationships.
Because of my plural marriage arrangement, I don't have to worry. I know that when I have to work late my daughter will be at home surrounded by loving adults My eight-year-old has never seen the inside of a day-care center, and my husband has never eaten a TV dinner.
And I know that when I get home from work, if I'm dog-tired and stressed-out, I can be alone and guilt-free. It's a rare day when all eight of my husband's wives are tired and stressed at the same time. Wives average eight children. Men average 28 children. Morality is how people relate to each other. If a man doesn't pay attention to the relationships within his family, he doesn't care about his family's morality. Class Stratification[ edit ] In the Montana polygynist community, one-third of the converts eventually left.
Three out of four who left were male.
Relationships/Monogamy and Polygamy - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
To convert, men give money, land, and possessions to the community. Men have to go through religious and character tests.
After converting, men are at the bottom of the hierarchy. The elite men-mostly the sons of the founders-get marital, financial, and religious advantages. Women have advantages at every stage of conversion.
The community doesn't ask women to contribute wealth. They believe that women are inherently more virtuous. Women pass the religious tests more easily. Women are encouraged to marry high-status men, to immediately join the community elite. Female converts are ten times more likely to integrate into the upper class than male converts. Incest, Child Abuse, and Wife Battering[ edit ] When a handful of men have absolute power, expect absolute corruption.Joe Rogan - Does Polyamory Work?
Another polygynous community has a reputation for incest, child abuse, and wife battering. The more girls a man gives away to his friends, the more girls he gets in return. Warren Jeffs, the Colorado City religious leader, ordered parents not to send their children to school: Men often marry their stepsisters or cousins. Inbreeding, or old men's defective sperm, produces many children with disabilities.
Rowenna Erickson, a former plural wife, calls the health care for children in polygamy a "freak show," saying pregnant women seldom receive prenatal care. Polygynous wives tell state agencies that they're single. Colorado City residents receive eight times more government services than they pay in taxes.
Utah convicted him of criminal nonsupport and welfare fraud. The state sentenced Green to five years in prison. Some men seem to be using their religion as an excuse for behavior that shouldn't be tolerated. Polygynous societies have more single men than single women.
The competition for scarce women can be brutal, sometimes lethal. Murderers are three times more likely to be single than married. Polygyny wasn't about promiscuous sex, but rather was a duty to care for widows and orphans.
Polygamy, as ideally practiced, is more Christian than divorce and remarriage as far as the abandoned wives and children are concerned.
Serial Monogamy as Polygyny or Polyandry?
European Jews practiced polygyny until the sixteenth century. Jews in Yemen continue to practice polygyny. He followed the Stoic philosophy that marriage and children distract from religious devotion. In contrast, Judaism and Islam value marriage as the ideal state for most people.
In these societies, polygyny is an ideal form of marriage-if the husband has the resources to provide for his wives, and the good character to raise children. The Pope adapted Christianity to Roman law, which forbade polygyny, but allowed prostitution and concubines concubines were wives whose children didn't inherit the father's wealth-we call them-ironically-mistresses.
The husband must raise the widow's children as his own. A man may marry up to four women. Martin Luther believed that ministers should marry. Henry then declared the Church of England independent of Rome; England became the first large Catholic nation to change its official religion to Protestant. Early Protestant rebel leaders often found themselves surrounded by adoring female converts, and declared that the Old Testament allows polygyny.
Polygyny in these sects always died out within a generation-sometimes by burning at the stake. I think Americans are more idealist, a sense of purity and innocence. If people fall in love, and they truly love each other, then there will be no other people in their lives, and they will be monogamous for fifty years.
The French would laugh at that concept. I'm not saying that it's easy to live the Parisian style, but I think it's more realistic.
It's less idealistic, it's making room for reality, there are temptations, there are other men and women we encounter along the road.
The End of a Love Story Biologists describe a species as monogamous if the animals: Raise their young together. Stay together for life.
Most monogamous species are less promiscuous than other species. Indeed, in role-reversed species female fitness increases as a function of the number of reproductive partners Jones et al.
Hauber and Lacey use these findings to suggest that both a reversal of parental roles as in the pipefish and social suppression as in some of the cooperative breeders can be powerful determinants of individual fitness and can modify sex-specific patterns of reproductive variance from the classic pattern described by Bateman.
Finally, there is now considerable evidence that females who mate with multiple males are more fertile and show higher offspring survival as reviewed in Hrdy ; in some cases this results from increased paternal provisioning, as in the case of alpine accentors Prunella collaris; Nakamura and dunnocks Prunella modularis; Davies There is also evidence in the avian literature that females benefit reproductively from divorce more than males do Dhont Here I build on these recent behavioral ecological insights, namely that competition and choice are not the exclusive provenance of males and females, respectively, that females can exceed males in reproductive competition, and that females can have higher variance in reproductive success than males perhaps through solicitous mate choiceto develop a new suggestion regarding human mating systems: The relatively atypical female behavior reviewed above is seen most commonly in sex-role-reversed or cooperatively breeding species Hauber and Lacey In humans we might expect the same patterns in societies that would conventionally be characterized as serially monogamous.
Other precipitating factors might be populations where males vary significantly in the investments they make in mothers and children, where women can sometimes rely on assistance from their kin, or where women might benefit from the genetic advantages of mating with multiple men. I focus on preliminary data from such a population.
Serial Monogamy How do these recent developments within the nonhuman literature affect the way we analyze human mating systems? To support this argument I will examine serial monogamy. I will derive conventional predictions from parental investment theory regarding expected outcomes associated with serial monogamy and test them with new data from a postreproductive cohort of men and women in a primarily horticultural population in western Tanzania. The analyses are still somewhat rudimentary, since the data are to be supplemented with more nuanced analyses of currently reproducing individuals.
Nevertheless the data at hand demonstrate that there are populations where women seem to lead sexual and reproductive lives that are very different from those derived from a Bateman-Trivers model. Serial monogamy is typically viewed by evolutionary anthropologists as a form of polygyny—in other words, a strategy whereby some men monopolize more than a single female reproductive lifespan through repeated divorce and remarriage e.
This can be done through various means, such as marrying women younger than themselves, and replacing divorced spouses with women younger than the previous spouse as shown in Utah; Kunz and Kunz ; both of these strategies effectively lengthen the reproductive lifespans of some men relative to those of women. Indications that men show higher variance in reproductive success than women, even in strictly monogamous systems, come from historical studies in Sweden reviewed in LowGermany Volandand the US Starks and Blackiethough see Brown and Horta for a different situation in the Pitcairn Islands.
These effects are usually achieved through multiple marriage Forsberg and Tullberg ; Mueller and Mazur or presumed extramarital reproduction Hopcroft If serial monogamy is a form of polygyny, we predict that men compared with women are more likely to have never married Prediction 1. Looking only at ever-married individuals, the prediction is that men have more spouses than women 2. To gain reproductive years, men marry women younger than themselves 3.
Finally, men are expected to gain more reproductive benefits from multiple marriages than do women 4. Ethnographic Materials and Demographic Methods Demographic records come from a single village Mirumbarepresentative of a primarily horticultural population in western Tanzania, the Pimbwe, residing in the Rukwa Valley Mpimbwe Division, Mpanda District.
Until the mid twentieth century Pimbwe were mixed farmer-foragers, relying heavily on fishing, hunting, honey production, and their small gardens of cassava Willis Impacts from German, Belgian, and British colonial escapades in this central African region were indirect since the region primarily served as a labor reserve Tambila More severe were the effects of colonial wildlife policies.
First in the s, then in the s, and most recently in areas protected initially for trophy hunting and more recently for wildlife tourism were established, rendering habitation, fishing, and hunting illegal in much of the Pimbwe traditional lands Borgerhoff Mulder et al. In the peak of the socialist era mid s Pimbwe families were settled in government villages, but many have now returned to ancestral lands that lie outside wildlife protected areas. Poverty largely results from poor transport and infrastructural development; there are no surfaced roads, and virtually no houses have electricity or running water.
Furthermore, economic progress in the whole region is seriously impeded by activities related to witchcraft Kohnert Unlike the Sukuma who have moved into the region, they keep no cattle. This resulted in a surplus of males and a shortage of females, which led to the adoption of polyandry, allowing a woman to marry a maximum of five men. In Augusttwo Kenyan men entered into an agreement to marry a woman with whom they had both been having an affair. Kenyan law does not explicitly forbid polyandry, although it is not common custom.
Polyandry in India and Polyandry in Tibet In the reign of Urukagina of Lagash, "Dyandry, the marriage of one woman to two men, is abolished. Notovitck mentioned polyandry in Ladakh or Little 'Tibet' in his record of his journey to Tibet. Polyandry was widely and to some extent still is practised in Lahaul-Spiti situated in isolation in the high Himalayas in India. In Arabia southern "All the kindred have their property in common That this was plain was evidenced by the custom among the women of wearing a hat containing a number of horns, one for each of the subsequent husbands, all of whom were also brothers to the husband.