Brain: Memory | Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
cognitive development at a relations in childhood. 5 days ago Through age 5, children experience remarkable cognitive growth and development. Cognitive Milestones in Early Childhood . influenced by close family relationships, particularly those with parents and other caregivers. Children differ in physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth . or relationship as a result of what the child learns through the senses.
Bronfenbrenner's ecological model also helps explain infant mental growth to some extent. According to Piaget, newborns interact with their environment entirely through reflexive behaviors.
They do not think about what they're going to do, but rather follow their instincts and involuntary reactions to get what they need: Piaget believed that as babies begin to grow and learn about their environment through their senses, they begin to engage in intentional, goal-directed behaviors.
In other words, they begin to think about what they want to accomplish, how to accomplish it, and then they do it.Baby and Toddler Milestones, Dr. Lisa Shulman
This is also when infants develop object permanence, which is the ability to understand that something still exists even if it can't be seen. These two milestones, goal-directed behavior and object permanence, are the highlights and major accomplishments of infant cognitive development.
Piaget separated infancy into six sub-stages, which have been adjusted somewhat over the years as new research and discoveries have occurred The sub-stages include: While these sub-stages sound highly confusing and complicated, they will be explained in more detail in the next paragraphs in order to simplify them and highlight the important aspects of each. The first sub-stage is reflexive activity, which lasts from birth to approximately 1 month.
According to Piaget, while babies are engaging in reflexive actions such as sucking when offered a bottle or the breast, or other reflexes covered earlier in this article, they are learning about their environment and how they can interact with it. Babies don't think about behaving reflexively; they simply act out those reflexes automatically. The second sub-stage is primary circular reactions, which spans the ages of 1 to 4 months. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract In this article, we review research and theory on the development of attention and working memory in infancy using a developmental cognitive neuroscience framework.
Development in Infancy and Childhood
We begin with a review of studies examining the influence of attention on neural and behavioral correlates of an earlier developing and closely related form of memory i.
Findings from studies measuring attention utilizing looking measures, heart rate, and event-related potentials ERPs indicate significant developmental change in sustained and selective attention across the infancy period.
For example, infants show gains in the magnitude of the attention related response and spend a greater proportion of time engaged in attention with increasing age Richards and Turner, Throughout infancy, attention has a significant impact on infant performance on a variety of tasks tapping into recognition memory; however, this approach to examining the influence of infant attention on memory performance has yet to be utilized in research on working memory.
In the second half of the article, we review research on working memory in infancy focusing on studies that provide insight into the developmental timing of significant gains in working memory as well as research and theory related to neural systems potentially involved in working memory in early development.
Understanding Growth and Development Patterns of Infants | VCE Publications | Virginia Tech
We also examine issues related to measuring and distinguishing between working memory and recognition memory in infancy. To conclude, we discuss relations between the development of attention systems and working memory.
When does this ability emerge in human development? What role does the development of attention play in this process? Answers to these questions are not only important for furthering our understanding of working memory, but are also fundamental to understanding cognitive development at a broader level.
We delve into these questions from a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective with a particular focus on the impact of the development of attention systems on recognition memory and working memory. In the sections that follow, we present a selective review of research in which psychophysiological and neuroscience techniques have been combined with behavioral tasks to provide insight into the effects of infant attention on performance on recognition memory tasks.
We begin our review with a focus on infant attention and recognition memory because the combined measures used in this line of work provide unique insight into the influence of sustained attention on memory.
To date, this approach has yet to be utilized to examine relations between attention and working memory in early development. In the second half of the article, we review research on working memory in infancy with a focus on studies utilizing behavioral and neuroscience measures for more exhaustive reviews, see Cowan, ; Nelson, ; Pelphrey and Reznick, ; Rose et al. We also focus on recent research findings that shed light on neural systems potentially involved in attention and working memory in infancy for excellent reviews on attention and working memory relations in childhood, see Astle and Scerif, ; Amso and Scerif, Because the human infant is incapable of producing verbal or complex behavioral responses and also cannot be given instructions on how to perform a given task, by necessity, many of the existing behavioral studies on infant working memory have been built upon look duration or preferential looking tasks traditionally used to tap into infant visual attention and recognition memory.
Thus, it is difficult to draw distinct lines when determining the relative contribution of these cognitive processes to performance on these tasks in the infancy period but see Perone and Spencer, ab. We conclude with a section examining potential relations between attention and working memory and propose that the development of attention systems plays a key role in the timing of significant gains in working memory observed in the second half of the first postnatal year.
Infant Visual attention and Recognition Memory Much of what we know about the early development of visual attention comes from a large body of research on recognition memory in infancy.
Because the defining feature of recognition memory is differential responsiveness to novel stimuli in comparison to familiar or previously viewed stimuli Rose et al.
This task involves the simultaneous presentation of two visual stimuli. Look duration to each stimulus during the paired comparison is measured.
The Development of Attention Systems and Working Memory in Infancy
In contrast, familiarity preferences are indicative of incomplete processing and continued encoding of the familiar stimulus. The underlying assumption is that infants will continue to look at a stimulus until it is fully encoded, at which point attention will be shifted toward novel information in the surrounding environment.
Thus, infant look duration has been a widely used and highly informative behavioral measure of infant attention that also provides insight into memory in early development.
Findings from these studies indicate that older infants require less familiarization time to demonstrate novelty preferences than younger infants; and within age groups, increasing the amount of familiarization results in a shift from familiarity preferences to novelty preferences Rose et al.