Mary, Queen of Scots has a Valois Child | Alternate History Discussion
Six days after her birth her father died, and she became Queen of Scotland. In July Francis succeeded his father becoming King Francis II and Mary became Elizabeth's because they viewed Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn as illegal. immediately took the advice of the moderates James Stuart (her half- brother. Francis II, Dauphin of France, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, James Hepburn, Lord Bothwell Francis married Mary, Queen of Scots on 24th April He was a weak and sickly child, and it is unlikely that the marriage was ever consummated. . The Lennox-Hamilton feud was intense, and without the advice of the exiled. Francis was married to Mary, Queen of Scots who had been sent to France for her Scottish commissioners and the French king Henry II for the marriage of Mary, Queen He was taking part in a joust and the tip of a lance went into his eye.
Their first child, also named Henry Stuart, died shortly after birth and in their second child, both parents poured all their dreams and ambitions. Darnley's father aspired to the Crown of Scotland, as he was descended from James II through the marriage of his grand-father Matthew Stewart, the 2nd Earl of Lennox to James's grand-daughter, Elizabeth, a claim which his rival, James Hamilton 2nd Earl of Arran, would contradict time and time again, as his father James Hamilton 1st Earl of Arran was Elizabeth's brother.
Imprisoned by her uncle, then promised the Crown of England for her heir, a promise promptly broken by Henry's will, Margaret's hopes soared again when Mary Tudor, her lifelong friend, took over after the death of Henry's son, Edward VI.
Mary I however, while showing great generosity to Darnley and his parents, wanted her own heir to inherit the English Crown. As it happened, it was the latter plan which came to fruition. Darnley met Mary twice before becoming her suitor. He was sent clandestinely to France by his parents in after the death of Mary's father-in-law, Henry II.
He spent some time at Chambord where the French court was at that moment, under the protective wing of his paternal uncle John Stuart d'Aubigny, who had remained in France. Darnley was not yet thirteen and carried with him a letter from his father, in which he pleaded to have his forfeited Scottish estates restored.
This was nothing but a formal audience with Mary, but a subtle way of introducing young Darnley on the scene. Inwhen Francis II died in his turn leaving Mary a widow, Darnley was once more sent over to offer his parents' condolences. There is no evidence that Mary regarded Darnley as a suitable choice for a new husband at that point, and her attentions were directed towards Don Carlos of Spain.
- Francis II of France
- Francis II - First Husband of Mary, Queen of Scots
- Mary, Queen of Scots, and the Earl of Bothwell
Meanwhile, Elizabeth I who had always regarded the Lennoxes with extreme suspicion, found out that they had been sending their son abroad behind her back and had them arrested. Darnley though, managed to slip away to France where he stayed for about a year. However, the tide soon turned again in the Lennoxes' favour. Elizabeth who had almost died of smallpox was faced with the thorny issue of her succession and preferred the claim of the Lennoxes for their son, rather than that of the Suffolk line, the spectre of the Grey family grand-daughter of Elizabeth's aunt, Mary, the other sister of Henry VIII.
Margaret and Matthew were released and Darnley returned to England inwhile Lennox was allowed to travel to Scotland to obtain the restitution of his estates. Elizabeth's attitude towards Mary's marriage negotiations was ambiguous to the extreme. First she made it plain that she would consider her an enemy of England, should she marry into a foreign power such as Spain.
Then, she put forward her favourite Robert Dudley, a man lacking in royal blood, related to convicted criminals, suspected of his wife's death and rumoured to be Elizabeth's lover. It is clear that she never expected Mary to accept her choice of husband for her, and negotiations were brought to an end when Elizabeth refused to name Mary as her successor in exchange.
However, at the same time, she allowed Darnley to join his father in Scotland for "legal matters". Did Mary fall in love with Darnley or was it just a political match which backfired?
The question has been much debated in favour of one or the other theory, and here again, the truth probably lies somewhere in between. As a matter of fact, Darnley and Mary had an awful lot in common. Not only were they both considered extremely attractive people, young and unusually tall for the era both were over 6 feet tallbut they had received the same education and shared the same taste in many areas.
Darnley was an accomplished dancer and sportsman, could play the lute, converse with Mary in her native Scot as well as in her preferred French, understand Latin and write verses.
His ambitious parents had taken care to provide him with an education fit for a king in the making. Furthermore, Darnley and Mary both shared a claim to the English throne as well as a common Scottish ancestor. Throughout their childhood and adolescence they had been both doted on, pampered and praised, one leading a sheltered existence at the French court and the other at his parents' home in Yorkshire.
The only romantic attachment Mary had known so far was with a sickly immature boy of 15 for whom she had had no more than sisterly affection. His untimely death had robbed them of the possibility of turning this relationship into a marital one, and since then, Mary had only considered marriage in the context of a political exercise.
What must this 24 year old full of life and health have thought when she found herself suddenly wooed by this good-looking, cultured peer who benefited from being an English subject and having strong royal connections of his own?
Undeniably, she must have welcomed the opportunity of solving the problem of her marital status by marrying a man she felt attracted to, a rare thing for a Queen in those days.
At first Mary did seem to take offence to Darnley's early proposal of marriage, but soon after Elizabeth's refusal to pronounce herself on her succession until she had made up her mind about getting married herself, there was no stopping Mary from wedding Darnley. She wrote impulsive letters in which she asked for Elizabeth's permission to marry Darnley, and then subsequently told her that she would marry him with or without her consent. This latter letter was intercepted by Mary's Secretary, Maitland of Lethington out of diplomatic concerns, which caused a breach in their relationship.
Darnley had lost the favour of the Earl of Moray by asserting that he owned too many estates, and his violent outbursts were cracking the veneer of his persona. Darnley had been confined to his bed due to an unusually long spell of the measles, which in view of his later illness, tends to suggest that he may have already suffered from the first signs of syphilis.
Mary, blind to this personality change, spent long hours at his bedside in the intimacy of his private chamber. By MayDarnley had made a full recovery. Darnley and Mary were married in a short Catholic ceremony on 29th July However, the contractual part of the marriage was probably completed in secret on 9th of the same month. Mary did not wait for the papal dispensation necessary for their marriage as they were related, and when it did arrive, it was luckily backdated so as to validate their union.
Medieval and Middle Ages History Timelines - Francis (II, King of France )
Mary thus married Darnley hurriedly, bestowing titles upon him and issuing a coin in his honour, building up a group of supporters in the face of mounting opposition from Moray's party, and ignoring Elizabeth's orders. If she had hesitated before, Mary had now made it clear that she was not prepared to be dictated to as to her choice of husband; not by her advisers and relatives, nor by another monarch, nor indeed by the Church itself.
However, by the time the Earl of Moray and his accomplices had fled to England in October following the crush of their rebellion against Mary, known as the "Chaseabout Raid", the mood had changed. Mary, who had elevated Darnley to virtual King status before they were even married, and conferred upon him more authority than she may have had the right to, began to realise Darnley's true nature. If she had loved him, she now perceived that the feeling was not returned and that she was just the stepping stone to his own advancement.
The Crown Matrimonial, which would have allowed Darnley to rule in Scotland should Mary have died childless, was his most cherished goal. In response to Mary curbing his authority or to any offence made to him, Darnley sulked disappearing for days on end either gallivanting throughout Scotland or frequenting establishments of ill-repute in Edinburgh with a bunch of equally dissolute youths.
He did so little to partake in state affairs that a special seal bearing his signature was made to allow the ratifying of legal documents in his absence. Nevertheless she felt betrayed by her Protestant advisors and withdrew some of her support from the Reformed church. Her marriage with Darnley soured and she refused him the right to succeed if she died without issue. Alone and disappointed, Mary turned to her Italian secretary, David Rizzio, for comfort and advice.
The Protestant lords disliked Rizzio's influence because they suspected him of being a papal agent, and Darnley openly stated that the Italian was too intimate with the Queen.
Francis II - First Husband of Mary, Queen of Scots
On 9th March a group of Protestant lords, acting with the support of Darnley, murdered Rizzio in Mary's presence at Holyrood Palace. Mary, who was six months pregnant, survived the horrible ordeal. In Edinburgh Castle on 19th Juneestranged from her husband and his allies, she gave birth to a son James later James I of England.
By the end of Mary had befriended James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwelland was seeking a way to dissolve her marriage with Darnley. Various schemes were concocted; it seems unlikely, however, that Mary was aware of the actual plot to eliminate her husband. On 10th February Darnley was murdered at Kirk o' Field; the circumstances of his death to this day remain a mystery.
Mary, Queen of Scots has a Valois Child
At the time, Bothwell was believed to be the chief instigator. Nevertheless he was acquitted after an all too brief trial. In April, Mary went off with Bothwell perhaps a victim of abduction ; early in May he obtained a divorce from his wife, and on 15th May he and Mary were wed according to the Protestant rite.
The Scottish court was much smaller than its French counterpart, then the most sophisticated in Europe, and Scotland was generally less appealing with its wild weather, harsh landscape and tribal politics. She spoke mostly French and was fond of typical courtly pursuits like dancing, masking, music and embroidery.
She was also an expert rider, courageous, spirited and headstrong - some said frivolous - and used to getting her own way. But she knew little of the affairs of state and had neither the temperament nor training for rule. Top Surrounded by enemies Mary's greatest handicap, however, was her religion: The leading Protestant lord was Mary's half-brother, the Earl of Moray, who had deposed her mother in Moray was the bastard son of James V and could never be King of Scotland.
Instead he became Regent and Scotland became Protestant. So when Mary arrived, she was surrounded by enemies, not least John Knox, the fiery Protestant preacher, who made regular attacks on her from the pulpit, calling her a jezebel and a heretic, and denouncing her loose French ways. Yet, for the first two years of her personal rule, things went rather well because Mary was young and inexperienced and followed the advice of Moray and the Protestant lords.
One of Mary's closest advisors at this time was the Earl of Bothwell, a tough, handsome border lord who was five years her senior. Bothwell was officially Protestant because you had to be to get on. On the other hand he had stayed loyal to Mary's mother during the rebellion of and he now served Mary with the same devotion.
He was, first and foremost, a nationalist who wanted a strong and independent Scotland. His chief aim was to prevent an alliance with England - Protestant England - because he saw it as the first step to political union. Historians have tended to assume that Bothwell did not exert any significant influence over Mary until But the recent discovery of secret reports from Thomas Randolph, the English Ambassador to the Scottish Court, indicates a much earlier intimacy.
In Octoberfor example, he reported that Bothwell was 'near sybbe unto her grace', which means they were close friends though not necessarily lovers. Moray resented Bothwell's influence and took advantage of his feud with the Earl of Arran to imprison him in Bothwell escaped and fled to France, at which point Moray persuaded Mary to put down a supposed rebellion by Bothwell's friend, the Earl of Huntly, in the Catholic north-west of Scotland.
Because she was determined to succeed Elizabeth I as Queen of England. Moray had promised her that if she crushed the Huntly rebellion Elizabeth would look favourably on her claim - and she believed him. But even with Huntly dead, Elizabeth refused to meet her. Mary had trusted her older half-brother, but he had simply used her to destroy a personal enemy and, in the process, further the Protestant cause. It was a turning point; Mary no longer trusted Moray and the Protestant lords and now turned, or returned, to the Catholic ticket.
It is generally believed that Bothwell was absent from Scotland during the crucial next two years when Mary began to take matters into her own hands. But Randolph's reports point unexpectedly to Bothwell's continuing influence. The upshot of meetings such as this one was that Mary chose Henry, Lord Darnley, as her new husband. By marrying Darnley, Mary hoped to strengthen the Catholic cause and enhance her claim to the English throne. The wedding took place at the Chapel Royal at Holyrood on 29 JulyMary wearing black, as befitted a widow.
Moray and some of the Protestant lords rebelled in protest, but were eventually driven into England by royal troops led by the Earls of Lennox and Bothwell, the latter having been recalled from France for the occasion.
Bothwell was now at the height of his powers, a leading member of Mary's new - and largely Catholic - council. The only fly in the ointment was Darnley.