Sino-Soviet relations - Wikipedia
The First United Front, also known as the KMT–CPC Alliance, of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the He had neither sympathy towards Marxism nor did he see communism as a solution to China's problems. he was also the main reason the relationship fell apart, due to his desire to control the Communist party, ultimately. The Historyof Conflict Between the KMT and the CCP. 29 problems in China as well as distress among the Chinese people. While Dr. . Sino-Soviet relations. The Chinese Communist Party also regarded the work of winning over . “ Problems of tactics in the United Front,” Selected Works 2, p. .. Dang yu tuan de quanxi (The Relationship between the Party and the Youth Corps).
China - War between Nationalists and communists | hair-restore.info
The group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January However, Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikaiwho arranged for the abdication of Puyithe last Emperor, on 12 February. On 25 Augustthe Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Pekingwhere Tongmenghui and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections.
The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaorenwho mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the Nationalists to advocate a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The party opposed constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan. The Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December However, Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions.
Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in Members of the Nationalists led by Sun Yat-sen suspected that Yuan was behind the plot and thus staged the Second Revolution in Julya poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, and failed.
Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December While exiled in Japan inSun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party on 8 Julybut many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang JingweiHu Hanmin and Chen Jiongmingrefused to join him or support his efforts in inciting armed uprising against Yuan.
Kuomintang - Wikipedia
In order to join the Revolutionary Party, members had to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution. As a result, he became largely sidelined within the Republican movement during this period. Sun returned to China in to establish a military junta at Cantonin order to oppose the Beiyang governmentbut was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai.
Inthe KMT and its Canton government accepted aid from the Soviet Union after being denied recognition by the western powers. Soviet advisers - the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodinan agent of the Comintern — arrived in China in to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unionestablishing a Leninist party structure that lasted into the s. The Communist Party of China CPC was under Comintern instructions to cooperate with the KMT, and its members were encouraged to join while maintaining their separate party identities, forming the First United Front between the two parties.
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in Soviet advisers also helped the KMT to set up a political institute to train propagandists in mass mobilization techniques, and in Chiang Kai-shekone of Sun's lieutenants from the Tongmenghui days, was sent to Moscow for several months' military and political study.
At the first party congress in in KwangchowKwangtungGuanzhou, Guangdong which included non-KMT delegates such as members of the CPC, they adopted Sun's political theory, which included the Three Principles of the People - nationalism, democracy and people's livelihood.
KMT flag displayed in Lhasa, Tibet in The real power, however, was in the hands of Chiang Kai-shek, who, as the superintendent of the Whampoa Military Academywas in near complete control of the military. With their military superiority, KMT confirmed their rule on Canton, the provincial capital of Kwangtung. The Guangxi warlords pledged loyalty to the KMT. The KMT now became a rival government in opposition to the warlord Beiyang government based in Peking.
Unlike Sun Yat-sen, whom he admired greatly, and who forged all his political, economic and revolutionary ideas primarily from what he had learned in Hawaii and indirectly through British Hong Kong and Empire of Japan under Meiji RestorationChiang knew relatively little about the West. He also studied in Japan, but he was firmly rooted in his ancient Han Chinese identity and was steeped in Chinese culture. As his life progressed, he became increasingly attached to ancient Chinese culture and traditions.
His few trips to the West confirmed his pro-ancient Chinese outlook and he studied the ancient Chinese classics and ancient Chinese history assiduously. Chiang met Leon Trotsky and other Soviet leaders, but quickly came to the conclusion that the Soviet communistMarxist and socialist model of government was not suitable for China. This laid the beginning of his lifelong antagonism against communism. Chiang was also particularly committed to Sun's idea of "political tutelage.
Using this ideology, Chiang built himself into the dictator of the Republic of China, both in the Chinese mainland and when the national government was relocated to Taiwan. Chiang had to defeat three separate warlords and two independent armies.
Chiang, with Soviet supplies, conquered the southern half of China in nine months. Having taken Nanking in March, Chiang halted his campaign and prepared a violent break with Wang and his communist allies. Second, the collapse of the KMT regime can in part be attributed to the government's economic policies, which triggered capital flight among the businessmen who had been the KMT's strongest supporters.
The cotton textile industry was the leading sector of Chinese industry, but inshortages of raw cotton plunged the industry into dire straits. The KMT government responded with an aggressive control policy that directly procured cotton from producers to ensure a sufficient supply and established a price freeze on cotton thread and textiles. This policy failed because of resistance from cotton textile industrialists, who relocated textile facilities and capital to Hong Kong or Taiwan around the end of and early when prices soared and inflation spiraled out of control.
Their withdrawal of support was a shattering blow to the morale of the KMT. Among the most despised and ineffective efforts it undertook to contain inflation was the conversion to the gold standard for the national treasury and the Gold Standard Script Chinese: The new script became worthless in only ten months and greatly reinforced the nationwide perception of KMT as a corrupt or at best inept entity.
Third, Chiang Kai-shek ordered his forces to defend the urbanized cities. This decision gave the Communists a chance to move freely through the countryside. However, with hyperinflation and other economic ills, widespread corruption, the KMT continued to lose popular support.
- History of the Kuomintang
- First United Front
At the same time, the suspension of American aid and tens of thousands of deserted or decommissioned soldiers being recruited to the Communist cause tipped the balance of power quickly to the Communist side, and the overwhelming popular support for the Communists in most of the country made it all but impossible for the KMT forces to carry out successful assaults against the Communists.
By the end ofthe Communists controlled almost all of mainland Chinaas the KMT retreated to Taiwan with a significant amount of China's national treasures and 2 million people, including military forces and refugees.
Some party members stayed in the mainland and broke away from the main KMT to found the Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintangwhich still currently exists as one of the eight minor registered parties in the People's Republic of China. Ideology in Mainland China s—s [ edit ] Chinese nationalism[ edit ] The Kuomintang was a nationalist revolutionary party, which had been supported by the Soviet Union.
It was organized on Leninism. The Kuomintang and Chiang Kai-shek used the words feudal and counterrevolutionary as synonyms for evil, and backwardness, and proudly proclaimed themselves to be revolutionary. He was personally angry at the way China was treated by foreigners, mainly by the Soviet Union, Britain, and the United States. The Chinese Muslim general Ma Bufang of Qinghai presented himself as a Chinese nationalist to the people of China, fighting against British imperialism, to deflect criticism by opponents that his government was feudal and oppressed minorities like Tibetans and Buddhist Mongols.
He used his Chinese nationalist credentials to his advantage to keep himself in power. It was noted that "Chinese colonization" of "Mongolia and Manchuria" led to the conclusion "to a conviction that the day of the barbarian was finally over. Sun Yat-senthe founding father of the Republic of China and of the Kuomintang party praised the Boxers in the Boxer Rebellion for fighting against Western Imperialism. He said the Boxers were courageous and fearless, fighting to the death against the Western armies, Dr.
Sun specifically cited the Battle of Yangcun. Why not worship something alive such as Nationalism? Foreign missionaries were attacked and anti foreign riots broke out.
During the Northern Expedition, in in Guangxi, Muslim General Bai Chongxi led his troops in destroying Buddhist temples and smashing idols, turning the temples into schools and Kuomintang party headquarters.
The monks were removed. Westerners fled from the province, and some Chinese Christians were also attacked as imperialist agents. Bai led the anti-religious movement, against superstition. Huang Shaoxiongalso a Kuomintang member of the New Guangxi Clique, supported Bai's campaign, and Huang was not a Muslim, the anti religious campaign was agreed upon by all Guangxi Kuomintang members.
Bai gave a speech in which he said that the minorities of china were suffering under foreign oppression. Bai called upon China to assist them in expelling the foreigners from those lands. He personally wanted to lead an expedition to seize back Xinjiang to bring it under Chinese control, in the style that Zuo Zongtang led during the Dungan revolt.
The Yihewani forced the Salafis into hiding. They were not allowed to move or worship openly. The Yihewani had become secular and Chinese nationalist, and they considered the Salafiyya to be "Heterodox" xie jiaoand people who followed foreigner's teachings waidao. Only after the Communists took over were the Salafis allowed to come out and worship openly. Socialist ideology of the Kuomintang and Canton Merchant Volunteers Corps Uprising The Kuomintang had a left wing and a right wing, the left being more radical in its pro Soviet policies, but both wings equally persecuted merchants, accusing them of being counterrevolutionaries and reactionaries.
The right wing under Chiang Kaishek prevailed, and continued radical policies against private merchants and industrialists, even as they denounced communism.
He defined this principle of saying in his last days "it's socialism and it's communism. The concept may be understood as social welfare as well.
Sun understood it as an industrial economy and equality of land holdings for the Chinese peasant farmers. Here he was influenced by the American thinker Henry George see Georgism and German thinker Karl Marx ; the land value tax in Taiwan is a legacy thereof.
He divided livelihood into four areas: Sun in the original Tongmenhui. The Kuomintang's revolutionary ideology in the s incorporated unique Chinese Socialism as part of its ideology.
Sun initiated this anti merchant policy, and Chiang Kai-shek enforced it, Chiang led his army of Whampoa Military Academy graduates to defeat the merchant's army. Chiang was assisted by Soviet advisors, who supplied him with weapons, while the merchants were supplied with weapons from the Western countries. The merchants were conservative and reactionaryand their Volunteer Corp leader Chen Lianbao was a prominent comprador trader. Sun for his war against foreign imperialists and capitalists.
Ching-kuo copied Soviet methods, which he learned during his stay there, to start a social revolution by attacking middle class merchants. He also enforced low prices on all goods to raise support from the Proletariat. The son of the gangster Du Yuesheng was arrested by him. Ching-kuo ordered Kuomintang agents to raid the Yangtze Development Corporation's warehouses, which was privately owned by H. Kung and his family.
Kung's son David was arrested, the Kung's responded by blackmailing the Chiang's, threatening to release information about them, eventually he was freed after negotiations, and Ching-kuo resigned, ending the terror on the Shanghainese merchants. The Kuomintang founder Sun Yat-senwas heavily influenced by the economic ideas of Henry Georgewho believed that the rents extracted from natural monopolies or the usage of land belonged to the public.
Sun argued for Georgism and emphasized the importance of a mixed economy, which he termed "The Principle of Minsheng" in his Three Principles of the People. With this money in hand, the State can therefore finance the social welfare programs. His government had a company, Fu Ning Company, which had a monopoly over commercial and industry in Ningxia. Doak Barnettpraised Ma Bufang's government as "one of the most efficient in China, and one of the most energetic.
While most of China is bogged down, almost inevitably, by Civil War, Chinghai is attempting to carry our small-scale, but nevertheless ambitious, development and reconstruction schemes on its own initiative" General Ma started a state run and controlled industrialization project, directly creating educational, medical, agricultural, and sanitation projects, run or assisted by the state. The state provided money for food and uniforms in all schools, state run or private.
Roads and a theater were constructed. The state controlled all the press, no freedom was allowed for independent journalists. His regime was dictatoral in its political system. Barnett admitted that the regime had "stern authoritarianism" and "little room for personal freedom". Marxists also existed in the Kuomintang party. They viewed the Chinese revolution in different terms than the Communists, claiming that China already went past its feudal stage and in a stagnation period rather than in another mode of production.
These Marxists in the Kuomintang opposed the Chinese communist party ideology. The Kuomintang used traditional Chinese religious ceremonies, the souls of Party martyrs who died fighting for the Kuomintang and the revolution and the party founder Dr. Sun Yatsen were sent to heaven according to the Kuomintang party. Chiang Kaishek believed that these martyrs witnessed events on earth from heaven.
The Kuomintang leaders also opposed the May Fourth Movement. Chiang Kai-shekas a nationalist, and Confucianist, was against the iconoclasm of the May Fourth Movement. He viewed some western ideas as foreign, as a Chinese nationalist, and that the introduction of western ideas and literature that the May Fourth Movement wanted was not welcome. Sun Yat-sen criticized these May Fourth intellectuals for corrupting morals of youth.
Becoming a shaheed in the Jihad for the country was encouraged by the Kuomintang, which was called "glorious death for the state" and a hadith promoting nationalism was spread. It pardoned Shi Jianqiao for murdering Sun Chuanfangbecause she did it in revenge since Sun executed her father Shi Congbin, which was an example of Filial piety to one's parents in Confucianism.
However, as Bodenhorn shows, scholars are coming to an appreciation of its efforts to build a vibrant and dynamic state, before it lost on the battlefield to the Communists, but then had a second chance on Taiwan where they did succeed. The KMT had a complicated relationship to Christian missionary activity. Many high officials including Chiang were Christians and American public opinion that favored China was based on the missionaries.
At the same time in the villages the KMT criticized missionary activity as an egregious example of imperialism. No significant action against the churches was taken but criticizing them was a much safer way to spread the anti-imperialist message of the KMT than taking on foreign firms or the U. The anti-Christian movements were important tactically for gaining the support of students and others in society who were angry at the influence of outsiders in China.
The Kuomintang purged China's education system of western ideas, introducing Confucianism into the curriculum. Education came under the total control of state, which meant, in effect, the Kuomintang party, via the Ministry of Education.
Military and political classes on the Kuomintang's Three principles of the people were added.