Judaism - Wikipedia
In the Torah, the beginning of the year was clearly set in the spring. itself out in the struggle to set a date for the beginning of the Jewish calendar year. “The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt: This month shall mark for . they are numbered in relation to the coming Shabbat], as I will explain below, so we. The most important dates in the Jewish calendar. This means that the holidays move around with relation to western dates. Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year, when Jews believe God decides what will Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah (22 Tishri; outside Israel Simchat Torah is 23 Tishri). Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to . According to the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), God promised Abraham to make of his .. The Jewish Year Calendar cites million.
For the sages of the Mishnah and Talmudand for their successors today, the study of Torah was therefore not merely a means to learn the contents of God's revelation, but an end in itself.
According to the TalmudThese are the things for which a person enjoys the dividends in this world while the principal remains for the person to enjoy in the world to come; they are: But the study of the Torah is equal to them all.SHABBAT Sabbath & JEWISH HOLIDAYS – Rabbi Michael Skobac, Jews for Judaism (Torah, kosher, Talmud)
In Judaism, "the study of Torah can be a means of experiencing God". The rabbi's logical and rational inquiry is not mere logic-chopping. It is a most serious and substantive effort to locate in trivialities the fundamental principles of the revealed will of God to guide and sanctify the most specific and concrete actions in the workaday world Here is the mystery of Talmudic Judaism: In the study of Torah, the sages formulated and followed various logical and hermeneutical principles.
According to David Stern, all Rabbinic hermeneutics rest on two basic axioms: According to the Talmud, A single verse has several meanings, but no two verses hold the same meaning. It was taught in the school of R. Just as this hammer produces many sparks when it strikes the rockso a single verse has several meanings.
Observant Jews thus view the Torah as dynamic, because it contains within it a host of interpretations  According to Rabbinic tradition, all valid interpretations of the written Torah were revealed to Moses at Sinai in oral formand handed down from teacher to pupil The oral revelation is in effect coextensive with the Talmud itself.
When different rabbis forwarded conflicting interpretations, they sometimes appealed to hermeneutic principles to legitimize their arguments; some rabbis claim that these principles were themselves revealed by God to Moses at Sinai.
Ishmaelthirteen baraita at the beginning of Sifra; this collection is largely an amplification of that of Hillel. Jose ha-Gelili listed 32, largely used for the exegesis of narrative elements of Torah. All the hermeneutic rules scattered through the Talmudim and Midrashim have been collected by Malbim in Ayyelet ha-Shachar, the introduction to his commentary on the Sifra. Ishmael's 13 principles are perhaps the ones most widely known; they constitute an important, and one of Judaism's earliest, contributions to logichermeneuticsand jurisprudence.
Ishmael's 13 principles are incorporated into the Jewish prayer book to be read by observant Jews on a daily basis. In the context of the age and period it meant "seeking or forming part of a cultural entity"  and it resembled its antonym hellenismosa word that signified a people's submission to Hellenic Greek cultural norms.
The conflict between iudaismos and hellenismos lay behind the Maccabean revolt and hence the invention of the term iudaismos. Cohen writes in his book The Beginnings of Jewishness: It means rather "the aggregate of all those characteristics that makes Judaeans Judaean or Jews Jewish. Boyarin suggests that this in part reflects the fact that much of Judaism's more than 3,year history predates the rise of Western culture and occurred outside the West that is, Europe, particularly medieval and modern Europe.
During this time, Jews experienced slavery, anarchic and theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile. In the Diaspora, they were in contact with, and influenced by, ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment see Haskalah and the rise of nationalism, which would bear fruit in the form of a Jewish state in their ancient homeland, the Land of Israel. They also saw an elite population convert to Judaism the Khazarsonly to disappear as the centers of power in the lands once occupied by that elite fell to the people of Rus and then the Mongols.
Jews spend some time in their sukkah, but not as much, and without some of the rituals. Simchat Torah means "Rejoicing in the Torah". Synagogues read from the Torah every week, completing one read-through each year. They reach the end on Simchat Torah and this holiday marks the completion of the cycle, to begin again the next week with Genesis. Hanukkah, or Chanukah 25 Kislev - 2 or 3 Tevet, depending on the length of Kislev The story of Hanukkah is that of the "miracle of the oil".
When they came to rededicate the temple, they had only enough sacred oil to light the menorah seven-branched candlestick for one day. It is said that the candles stayed lit for eight days despite this.
During the eight days of Hanukkah, Jews light one extra candle on a special nine-branched menorah, called chanukkiya, each night. They say prayers and eat fried foods to remind them of the oil.
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Some gifts are exchanged, including chocolate money and special spinning tops called dreidels. The Torah forbids Jews to eat the fruit of new trees for three years after they are planted.
The fourth year's fruit was to be tithed to the Temple. Tu B'Shevat was counted as the birthday for all trees for tithing purposes, like the beginning of a fiscal year. Planting trees is another tradition. Purim 14 Adar Purim celebrates the events told in the Book of Esther, in which a wicked Persian nobleman named Haman plotted to murder all the Jews in the land. The Jewish heroine Esther, wife of the king Ahasuerus, persuaded her husband to prevent the massacre and execute Haman.
Because Esther fasted before going to the king, Purim is preceded by a fast. On Purim itself, however, Jews are commanded to eat, drink a lot and celebrate.
Almsgiving is also a very important Purim tradition. The Book of Esther is read in the synagogue and the congregation use rattles, cymbals and boos to drown out Haman's name whenever it appears. Hence the court, not the astronomy, has the final decision.
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The day most commonly referred to as the "New Year" is 1 Tishrei, which actually begins in the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year. On that day the formal New Year for the counting of years such as Shmita and YovelRosh Hashanah "head of the year" is observed. This is the civil new year, and the date on which the year number advances. Certain agricultural practices are also marked from this date. In fact the Jewish calendar has a multiplicity of new years for different purposes.
The use of these dates has been in use for a long time. The use of multiple starting dates for a year is comparable to different starting dates for civil "calendar years", "tax or fiscal years ", " academic years ", "religious cycles", etc. By the time of the redaction of the MishnahRosh Hashanah 1: The 1st of Nisan is the new year for kings and feasts; the 1st of Elul is the new year for the tithe of cattle On the 15th thereof.
Tu Bishvat "the 15th of Shevat " marks the new year for trees and agricultural tithes.
Hebrew calendar - Wikipedia
For the dates of the Jewish New Year see Jewish and Israeli holidays — or calculate using the section "Conversion between Jewish and civil calendars". Leap years The Jewish calendar is based on the Metonic cycle of 19 years, of which 12 are common non-leap years of 12 months and 7 are leap years of 13 months.
To determine whether a Jewish year is a leap year, one must find its position in the year Metonic cycle. This position is calculated by dividing the Jewish year number by 19 and finding the remainder. Since there is no year 0, a remainder of 0 indicates that the year is year 19 of the cycle.
For example, the Jewish year divided by 19 results in a remainder of 3, indicating that it is year 3 of the Metonic cycle. The keviyah records whether the year is leap or common: This connection with the major scale is more plain in the context of 19 equal temperament: A simple rule for determining whether a year is a leap year has been given above.
However, there is another rule which not only tells whether the year is leap but also gives the fraction of a month by which the calendar is behind the seasons, useful for agricultural purposes. If the remainder is 6 or less it is a leap year; if it is 7 or more it is not.