They are names (nicknames) for family and close friends usage - with only positive and close relationships. On slaves it's looked weird and. at least friendly with a successful Diplomacy check, Hatsue agrees to take the kabuto helmets, 10 masterwork daikyus (longbows) translated, the poem reads as follows. If you're using the relationship rules presented in the Jade. Half-assed poem(s) from the Skye. Tough Love. You move,. And I follow with cat- like persistence I see you, little mouse I wonder what you taste like?.
Enter and take your seat. The countdown to the snake dancer's murder is about to begin An empath, with the ability to feel the emotions of people around her and even manipulate emotions in other people, can't feel anything of her own. Even while drowning in a sea of emotions, she's numb. Until he comes along. They call him The Punisher.
She calls him The Savior. He calls her The Annoyance. It is not a story of great deeds, or about a great hero. She wasn't a hero. She was a fisher from Alaska doomed to a life she never would have chosen and quest that wasn't even hers.
Her adventure was entirely unexpected. Or at least, that's how the story went. Due to unfortunate circumstances, she's back in her small hometown of Riverdale where her biggest fear is being the strange, quiet new girl with eyes and whispers following her around school. But with the mysterious death of Jason Blossom, she's the last thing on everyone's mind. Well, maybe not everyone's. Blackout by adelheid23 reviews This wasn't a good day for Penny to end up trapped in an elevator with a stranger.
Especially since that stranger was the Joker. Set before The Dark Knight. She knew that now. She could run as far and fast as she liked, but she wouldn't ever be able to reclaim what she knew she'd lost. Her life ended the minute she set foot in Santa Carla. Part 1 of the West Coast Vampires Saga. Lilli Collins was hired at Arkham Asylum she had no idea what lay in store for her. Arkham Asylum - Rated: Amelia Wright, caught in the wake of the first time travel mishap, finds herself in good ole' Suspicion surrounds her arrival, while others fight to keep her safe.
Follow her journey as she makes a place for herself. A chance meeting and dark alliances lead Buffy, Dawn and the Scoobies into the world of Wizards, Witches, and assisting in the Second War against Voldemort. Despite having her own matters to deal with, Wendy was a little worried. And when she began to notice the strange group of boys with hypnotizing gazes prowling the boardwalk, she couldn't help but sense something was off.
Especially with the boy with the angelic face who drew her in the most. Yeah, they bring some positive aspects to her life, but all positives have a negative side. Robin Hood, - Rated: Trouble strikes when he hatches four years later, deciding it's time to get of rid her. Things don't quite go as planned. Dark, but not a darkfic. The Third Age was the best age, that sweet spot in the timeline where they could do the most good without destroying the future.
Tommy was dead though, and Lucy was lost: Noldor were not to be trifled with, she learned belatedly. Doom was never far behind them. AU Lord of the Rings - Rated: The Movie - Rated: I must say, you are good. But here's something to think about, Pennywise. The last woman who tried to psychoanalyze me ended up falling in love with me. M - English - Romance - Chapters: And Unicorns are his fetish.
Suicide Squad - Rated: Faith heads back east, and rescues an interesting - and green - guy named Mort. The Vampire Slayer - Rated: T - English - Adventure - Chapters: Livid by Descendinglight reviews Moriarty becomes inspired by Sherlock's 'pet'; his ordinary. Moriarty decides to obtain one for himself to test the whole experience out. Of course, what he gets is not what he expected. Rose Lare is practically livid. By accident she falls into the river and nearly drowns, only to be rescued by a man from another world on his way to Rivendell.
He offers to take her home before joining the Fellowship and now she won't let him out of it when her memory beings to fade. Lord of the Rings - Rated: Never one to let loose ends lie undone, he pays a visit to the man's daughter to ensure she knew nothing of her father's work. Their meeting, though brief and seemingly inconsequential, lingers in Wesley's mind.
He soon finds himself acting in favor of his desires rather than logic. You can image Jamie Mackenzie's surprise when it's her bar they start to frequent.
Mostly AU with the occasional nod to proper time line. Now, someone else has taken notice M - English - Horror - Chapters: But when a ninja clan thought long dead reemerges intent on destroying the Hidden Mist Village, Zabuza's former apprentice must consider a return to his former life.
Sequel to 'The Broken Tool'. Ever since the Year of Glory, strange men in robes had rubbed Buffy's nerves the wrong way. He did not need luggage to carry around - another responsibility to worry about. Asher, however, proves she is more than a liability; and, to Max's chagrin, he finds himself loving her company. Perhaps he was going mad. Perhaps she would be the one to finally push him over the edge.
Mad Max - Rated: Crowley saw the potential for a bit of amusement But along with the arrival of other new mutants, Muirin's dark past resurfaces and a fanatical international government organization threatens all mutants. The heavy burden of noting on cards the thousands of entries that have gone into this volume was accomplished by Mrs. Noriko Kakiuchi, who worked with great ardor and high efficiency. Hiroko Quackenbush too helped in the initial gathering of titles. Taken to Japan in the summer ofthe first listing of titles received a thorough scrutiny by Professor Seiichi Yoshida, acknowledged authority in the field of modern Japanese literature, who swiftly accorded to the present writer his most considerate counsel and guidance.
Under Professor Yoshida's direction, his younger colleagues and graduate students at Tokyo University undertook the important task of providing data on the main trends of Showa drama and poetry, analyzing the contents of various anthologies, journals, and books relating to Showa literature, and revising in particular the entries in this bibliography in the field of poetry.
Megumu Maeda provided materials on the history of drama in the Sh6wa period, Mr. Masatoshi Kawamura materials on the history of the shi or long poem, tanka, and haiku in Showa times, Mr.
Takashi Nomura the analyses of scholarly works pertaining to Showa literature, Mr. Yukio Miyoshi the analyses of the contents of anthologies, and Mr. Yasuhiko Tsukamoto, and Mr. Akira Yamada the analyses of journals. Masaru Sato also contributed many suggestions on the final choices of items to be entered in chapter three.
Yoshiki Hoshi no and Miss Haruko Kishimoto provided translations for some of the foregoing materials, working especially hard on the problem of reading properly the various personal names. Sadayoshi Tanabe's staff at the Tokyo Shisei Chosakai provided a mass of bibliographical information. Tanabe himse has given me a new appreciation. To each of these persons I owe a deep debt of gratitude for their thoughtful, efficient, and courteous collaboration.
I also have the very pleasurable duty of making my acknowledgments to the various agencies and persons who have made the prosecution of this work possible. To the Horace H. From the General Library of the University of Michigan I ha ived a grant permitting the purchase of a collection of books in the field of modern Japanese literature which are now found on the shelves of the General Library's Far Eastern Collection. I should like to acknowledge my special thanks to Professor John W.
Hall, Director of the Center for Japanese Studies, and to the Executive Committee and staff of the Center for continued encouragement in compiling this volume.
This work owes heavily to various Japanese publications. The basic printed sources are the following: This work was used as a fundamental source. The single best one-volume dictionary of modern Japanese literature, it is full of information on authors, movements, journals, and representative works. The coverage is for Meiji, Taisho, and Showa literature.
A good bibliography of writings on this literature is included. The chronological table refers to authors only by their given names, and publishers' names are not mentioned in the case of books. However, the names of the magazines are always given in connection with the magazines are always given in connectioncles and creative works that appeared in them. The listing of literary events too is very useful. This work too was used as a basic source.
The chronological table lists authors by surnames. Many translations into Japanese are listed. Unfortunately, the table does not mention the names of the magazines which printed the listed articles and creative works. Nor are the publishers given, and the genres to which the titles belong are not shown. The chronological table names authors only by their given names and includes only a few translations into Japanese.
However, the genres to which particular works belong are clearly shown, and the section on poetry is strong. Social and political events are stated in great detail.
Dictionary of contemporary Japanese literatureToky6, Kawade Shobo, This volume was the source for the titles of a large number of works. A certain tendentiousness is evident in favor of leftist authors and journals. This volume contains a number of articles providing extensive information on Showa literature. The significant literary works mentioned in these articles are included in the present work. Literary coterie magazines during the Showa period ," pp. Ara Masahito, -J- A- ed. This work was used to check dates of publication and the names of publishers.
Descriptions of literary events were provided in great detail. This was the only book which included to any extent the works of Korean writers published in Japanese in Japan. The part on poetry was especially helpful. The part on criticism was especially useful.
Ito Sei If T k. The literature of JapanTokyo, Mainichi Shimbunsha, The part on criticism yielded many titles. Used to check dates and places of publication, publishers' names, the readings of authors' names, and as sources for the anthologies listed in the present volume were: Kadokawa Shoten i " t 1, ed. An anthology of Sh5wa literatureToky6, Kadokawa Shoten,58 plus 2 supplementary volumes. Nakano Shigeharu -e " m and others, ed. An anthology of the contemporary long poemT6kyo, Kawade Shobo, The Aesthetic School Tambiha b.
The Leisure School Yoyuha c. The White Birch School Shirakabaha 5. The Neo-realist School Shin-genjitsuha Proletarian Fiction and its Offshoots Agriculturalist Literature N6min bungaku c. The Neo-impressionist School Shin-kankakuha b. The Neo-psychological School Shin-shinrishugiha d. The Neo-socialist School Shin-shakaiha e. The Literature of Nationalism War Literature Sens6 bungaku 9. The Literature of Decadence b. The Artistic Resistance to Nationalism The Revival of Proletarian Literature The Academic Liberals b.
Popular Literature Taishu bungaku The Humorous Story Kokkei Shosetsu d. Detective Fiction Tantei Sh6setsu e.
The Fleshly School Nikutaiha f. The Traditional Forms of Drama: N6, Kabuki, and Shimpa The Beginnings of Modern Drama The Drama-writing School Gekisakuha The Pseudo-classical School Gikoha Dadaism and Similar Influences from the West The Long Poem in the Thirties The Long Poem in the Postwar Era The Tanka in the Early Meiji Era The Myojo Bright Star School The Araragi School in its Earliest Years Tanka in the Spoken Language Kogoka Further Developments in Tanka in the Spoken Language The Tanka in the Postwar Era The Haiku in the Early Meiji Era The Japan School Nihonha The Lesser Rivals of the Japan School The New Tendency Haiku Shin-keiko-ku The Hototogisu School in the Taish5 Era The Haiku at the End of the Taisho Era The Hototogisu School in the Showa Era Index of Authors and Editors Introduction Many Japanese authors seek simply to entertain, and do not strive for more than a general readability.
Others tend to group themselves into schools which gravitate around one or more leaders, proclaim a set of ideals, either artistic or ideological, and often publish their writings in special coterie magazines.
It also seems typical of a Japanese writer to follow basically the same set of principles, artistic or ideological, with which he started his literary career. Thus Tanizaki Jun'ichiro's latest works, like Sasameyuki The delicate snowShosho Shigemoto no haha The mother of Lesser Commander Shigemotoand even Kagi The keya novel widely discussed for its theme of diminishing sexual vitality on the part of an aging hero, show a concern with literary art reminiscent of his very earliest works which too exhibit an art for art's sake attitude.
She then went to Marxism but was wooed back toward orthodoxy in the days before and during World War II. Following the war she once more began to write under the banner of humanitarian and proletarian literature. Through these changes, however, an idealistic strain runs through her writings. This is not to say that a Japanese author will always follow the same stylistic and rhetorical qualities and the identical complex of ideas that he has once adopted.
Shimazaki Toson, who was at first a naturalist, became attracted to romanticism before returning to a more realistic vein. Kikuchi Kan, the leader of the Neo-realist movement during World War I, eventually became a writer of popular fiction, to which Yokomitsu Riichi, first classed as a Neo-impressionist, also retreated.
The same literary work may in fact be viewed for its artistic qualities, its ideology, and the amount of success it achieves simply for its readability. We should not wish, therefore, to say that each author's work is marked by a strict and persistent adherence, throughout his career, to the tenets of any school of which he was once a member. Rather, if his name is mentioned under any of the groupings that follow, it is to be taken that his work followed the basic aims of that school at the time when it was prominently identified on the Japanese literary scene.
The same author's name may thus be found under more than one school. When two or more of these schools are found to agree in their basic characteristics, we should not be surprised if a particular author is mentioned under each of them. To be sure, some of the schools have a temporary, faddistic aspect to them, but the ties which bind Japanese writers into more or less congenial fraternities repeat in the world of literature the associations found elsewhere in Japanese society, whether they be schools, banks, textile firms, hospitals, government offices, or political parties.
An important part of Showa literature is written by authors who gained their first fame in the earlier years of the century. Continuing to write to the present day are a number of writers who were involved in the basic conflict that had developed in literature, between a naturalistic view of life on the one hand and an idealistic or romantic view on the other.
The opposition between these points of view is, in fact, basic to literature from the time of the Russo-Japanese War, fought inup to the great earthquake of the Tokyo-Yokohama area in The opposition was continued between the writers of proletarian literature and the authors to whom the artistic values of literature seemed more important, but with the rise of nationalism in the thirties both were silenced and literature like the nation went to war.
It is in the postwar era that a rich literature based on a variety of ideological and aesthetic concepts is being revived. Although their European models had enjoyed their first popularity in Europe at least thirty years before, the writers of Japan now agreed that the methods of science and positivism should be employed in studying man.
Like Zola and de Maupassant they believed that a man's personality was related to his physiology. With Darwin they agreed that the character of living beings was governed by heredity and environment.
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The naturalists stood against the shallow idealisms of romantic literature and stated very frankly that man was a member of the animal kingdom.
On the other hand, the romanticists who wrote at the end of the nineteenth century in the journal Bungakkai Literary world also contributed to the rise of naturalism by searching into the truths of the individuality and by rejecting the ideals and formal morality of earlier times. The naturalist movement also received part of its impetus from the interest in native things and values that came after the heady victory won in the Russo-Japanese War. Among the first examples of naturalistic writing was Hatsusugata First rendezvouswritten by Kosugi Tengai in This work was a copy of Zola's Nana; the heroine, a chanter in the kiyomoto style, is faithless to her lover, though not through her own volition.
Nagai Kafui in Jigoku no hana Flowers of hellwritten indealt with the distressing experiences encountered by a girl of pure feeling who becomes the governess in a rich man's family. But Tayama in Futon The quiltswritten intold the story of a writer, Tayama himself, who falls in love with a girl disciple and sends her back to her home in the country when she becomes attracted to another man. After her departure the author throws himself on her bedding in an excess of mortification and sexual desire.
Following Tayama's example many of the naturalists began to write confessional literature devoid of the social significance found in the works of their master, Zola. Some, like Masamune Hakuch6, were despairing nihilists.
Others like Iwano Homei were more optimistically inclined. These authors were referred to as the Waseda realists, from their association as students at Waseda University. Waseda bungaku Waseda literature and Bunsho sekai The world of writingboth begun inwere early journals of the naturalist movement. These were followed by Shumi Taste. These magazines were opposed by Mita bungaku Mita literaturepublished by a group of writers educated at Keio University who took an art-above-all attitude.
The answer seemed to lie in autobiographical materials which would describe the happenings and reflections of a man's daily life. The romantic emphasis on the ego also helped to create a confessional type of literature describing the author's own experiences.
The result was a kind of fiction which has come to be known as watakushi-sh6setsu or shishosetsu, which are terms that may be rendered "first person fiction" and recall the Ich Roman in Germany. Equally introspective is the shinky6-sh6setsu or fiction of mental life.
First-person fiction and the fiction of mental life were also influenced by the emphasis given to the ego in the Shirakaba or White Birch School. Limited in their scope since their authors are literary men writing chiefly about themselves, they left untouched the larger social scene. Criticism and a spirit of reformation are missing, and naturalism becomes mainly a means of representation. Attacled with great vigor by critics like Nakamura Murao, Ikuta Ch6ok, Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke, Sato Haruo, and Nakamura Mitsuo who look for a more creative and more socially significant honkaku-sh6setsu or real novel, first person fiction has also had its defenders in writer-critics like Kume Masao who say that its value lies in the emphasis it gives to unusual awarenesses, often of danger to human existence, which only sensitive literary men may discover and express, Tayama Katai, Tokuda Shulsei, and Kasai Zenzo, who were naturalists, and Mushakoji Saneatsu, who was a member of the Shirakaba or White Birch School, anticipated the writers of first-person fiction.
Among its innovators were Chikamatsu Shuk6 and Kimura S6ta. These authors published Giwaku Suspicion and Ken'in Pullingrespectively, in Kamura Isota too belongs to this group, while Shiga Naoya, associated with the Shirakaba school in his earlier years, turned to the fiction of mental life. In general, the writers of firstperson fiction take a pessimistic view of life, and the writers of the fiction of mental life, more apt, like Shiga, to be influenced by such schools as the Shirakaba, seek a harmonizing between their literary lives and the claims of society.
Midway between the two are Kambayashi Akatsuki and Amino Kiku. In general these "neo-romantic" writers were much more hopeful in their general outlook than their predecessors in Japanese literature of the nineteenth century. They wanted to find strong stimuli in a vigorous and lively existence. They too were participants in the exuberance built up in Japan after her victories over China and Russia, annexation of Korea, and participation on the winning side in World War I.
The Aesthetic School Tambiha W t -i One of the neo-romantic groups was named the Tambiha or Aesthetic School because it believed in an artfor-art's sake philosophy. The senses and artistic taste were centrally important to these authors. They reveled in emotion. The emphasis in Japan was on aestheticism, although decadence, hedonism, and a general fin de siecle sentiment also were discernible. The name Neo-romantic, capitalized, seems appropriate because it came after the earlier romantic efforts found in the journal Bungakkai Literary world at the end of the nineteenth century, and in the poetic magazine Myojo Bright starpublished at the beginning of the twentieth.
Mita bungaku Mita literaturepublished at Kei6 University under the editorship of Nagai Kafuf and Sawaki Kozue, was considered to be the rival of Waseda bungaku. The Neo-romanticists were friendly with such painters as Ishii Hakutei and Kimura S6hachi, who respectively wrote poems and essays.
Pan no Kai The Pan Society was their club. The group was devoted to the pursuit and enjoyment of sensual beauty. The city rather than the country, and foreign countries instead of Japan, drew their interest; they found solace in Bohemian cafes and bars. Imaginary worlds were deliberately created in order to seek liberation from the pains of reality.
Social concerns were rejected.
The sensitive perception of formal beauty became allimportant. The writings were chic and flashy. Too frequently without substance, the writers were attacked by critics like Abe Jiro and Akagi Kohei; Ishikawa Takuboku, Takamura, Kitahara, and Kinoshita soon fled the group. The more idealistic Shirakaba school began to overshadow the Aesthetes, but the two had in common the priority they gave to the human individuality and to art. The leader was the famous Natsume Soseki who was at first a scholar of English literature and poet of the haiku, in which he was a disciple of Masaoka Shiki, perhaps the most important poet at the turn of the century.
In the yearNatsume went to England for a stay of more than two years and became deeply engrossed in the works of George Meredith. In his earliest work he tried to seek freedom from the pains and anxieties of a poverty-stricken existence by laughing them down. He always took, however, the point of view of an objective outsider. His aloofness distinguished him from the writers of private fiction.
In his later work Natsume became increasingly concerned with psychological problems surrounding the ego. Representative of several works that dissect egoism in man are K6jin Those who pass byKokoro The heartMichigusa Grass on the side of the roadand Meian Light and darknesswhich were published between and and came near the end of a distinguished career. In these works Natsume describes the torments which egoism creates in man, and concludes that man should seek to reconcile the contradictions between his ideals and actuality, search for a higher ethics and art, but suppress his ego, and resign himself to his destiny.
The style favored by Natsume in his earlier works was called shaseibun, "imagistic writing. Except for It6 and Nagatsuka, who were poets of the tanka, these were authors of the haiku.
It6 in particular was drawn to a naturalistic style more concerned with social problems and less like "that of an adult contemplating a child, sympathetically but with a hidden smile. Belonging to the propertied and even aristocratic class, they were among the few Japanese of the time to whom an almost complete freedom of thought and action was permitted. They placed the highest value therefore on the development of the individuality.
They were also stimulated by examples of idealism in foreign lands. Their leader, Mushak6ji Saneatsu, had already engrossed himself in the works of Tolstoy.Doori (long distance relationship) Hindi poem by Mustafa Manihar
Although for a time he rejected the humanitarianism of his Russian teacher, he returned to it when he established a community called Atarashiki Mura or New Village in Kyifshil. Arishima Takeo, influenced more by Whitman, distributed his lands in Hokkaid6 among his tenants and gave his house in Tokyo and his shares in the Nippon Yusen Kaisha Japan Mail Steamship Company to his family's servants.
The entire group, including writers of fiction, drama, poetry, and literary and art criticism, took its name from the journal Shirakaba White birchwhich was published between and The school reached its peak of influence in Its writings were affirmative, subjective, and moral, and still included an epicurean strain. Though rough and unpolished, the style of composition was entirely free and invigorating. The group introduced or made better known such Western authors as Walt Whitman, August Strindberg, Maurice Maeterlinck, and Romain Rolland, and published translations of Western literature.
Related to the Shirakaba School is the broadly humanistic work of the philosophers and thinkers of the time. Some of these writers held that man and the universe were one and that the development of each individual man, contributing to the whole of humanity, made the universe richer.
The emphasis was on man's relationship with the whole of humanity or with the universe, with very little attention paid to "society. The Neo-realist School Shin-genjitsuha Xr it t The various idealistic schools were answered by the Shingenjitsuha or Neo-realistic school, which held a prominent place in literature from about to Except for Kikuchi Kan, most of the writers were influenced by Natsume in their literary style and in their view of life.
Writing, it was felt, should not be merely autobiographical. As men in society, most of the authors of the Neo-realist School tended to enjoy themselves and to regard physical health and wit as attributes of a good life. They believed that technique and art were needed to heighten reality.
They also went not only to society but to the older legends of the nation in their search for interesting subject matters.
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Akutagawa, the author of the two stories Rashomon The Rashomon gate and Yabu no naka In the the thicket which went into the movie Rashmon, paid close attention to the details of writing. His works exhibit a high degree of intellectual control over his materials, which tend to run to the strange, grotesque, unreal, and fantastic. Kikuchi too found his subject matter in past history, but afterwhen he published Shinju fujin Madame Pearlhe became more and more a writer of popular fiction.
As editor of the magazine Bungei shunji Literary annalshe became the arbiter of the Japanese literary world. One word of praise from Kikuchi virtually opened the doors to success for any ambitious young writer.
The high degree of intellectual control exercised over their materials by Akutagawa, Kikuchi, Kume, Toyoshima, and Yamamoto led to their being named the Shinrichiha Neo-intellectual School and Shingik6ha New Technique School.
Also, their association with the third and fourth revivals of the magazine Shinshicho New trends of thought gave them the name Shinshich6ha. Proletarian Fiction and its Offshoots Japan, like most of the nations of the world, was caught in the economic depression which followed World War I. In literature the major result was the development of a vigorous proletarian movement which threatened for a time to monopolize the activities of an entire generation of writers.
Proletarian literature in Japan had for its background the growing concern with human rights which came with the breakdown of feudalism in the Meiji period. As early asTokutomi Roka in Kuroshio Black current had exposed corruption in government as controlled by the Satsuma and Choshuii clans, and had suggested that the lesser classes should throw off the fetters which tied them to a freedom-less existence.
Shimazaki T6son's Hakai The breaking of the pledge had pictured the life of a young man unfortunate enough to be born into a family of eta, the most conspicuous of the pariah groups in Japanese society. Kinoshita Naoe had written socialistically inclined novels and had fought for human rights in the courtroom. The poet Ishikawa Takuboku too had sung of the poverty of the farmers of northern Japan, and of his hardships as a struggling young teacher in the city of Morioka.
From the literary historian and critic Homma Hisao had come an essay on the meaning and value of a people's literature, and Osugi Sakae, after translating a treatise on "people's drama" by Romain Rolland, had written about "an art for a new world. On the social scene Japan had also witnessed a series of rice riots and strikes in the period of depression that followed World War I, and the time was ripe for the coming in of Communism.
Proletarian Fiction It is generally agreed that proletarian literature per se came into being when the magazine Tane maku hito Planters of seeds was established in to publish a literature of the working class.
From the beginning this magazine included the writings of advance guard thinkers, including anarchists. Gradually it took on a Communist coloration and became an organ for anti-capitalist intellectuals rather than the anarcho-syndicalists who were vocal at that time. The Japan Communist Party was established in Attacked by traditionalist thinkers and by authors like Kikuchi Kan who proclaimed the value of literature as art, proletarian literature declined in the nationalistic period following the great earthquake of