Gilgamesh and the Bible
In all the ways that Gilgamesh is kingly and "civilized," Enkidu reflects the natural world But what about Humbaba, who guards the Cedar Forest from humans?. While the epic of Gilgamesh is best known for its themes of friendship, the idea of Humbaba is what keeps humans living in fear, shaking in their and saw in the catastrophic scenarios described in the article a relation. At the same time, the relations between humans and deities can be destructive and In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Scorpion People are liminal creatures. As well as .
Later, Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh that he can become an immortal if he achieves to stay awake for six days and seven nights.
Gilgamesh accepts this and he sits on the shore. However, he falls asleep and he loses his chance to become an immortal.
Utnapishtim by pitying him tells him about a magic plant but Gilgamesh fails again keeping this magic plant that would make Gilgamesh young again. At the end of the epic, Gilgamesh returns to his city. In this paragraph, I want to talk little bit about alter-ego conception. Id is the animal part of human beings which is full of desires, appetites and away from reason.
Id can be very dangerous for people who cannot satisfy their desires because id is also a place where emotions are located and in addition to love, pity, humans have feelings like hatred, anger etc. Ego is the place of rationality and helps people in acting reasonably to satisfy their desires.
Religion and Humanity in Mesopotamian Myth and Epic
Superego similar to ego tries to suppress uncontrolled and wild desires of id and orientates individuals to act flawlessly. Superego tries to direct ego to act on the basis of ethics more than rationality in Freudian thought.
Turning back to alter-ego, we can say that alter-ego is something different from id, ego and superego, it symbolizes the complementary and opposite part of a person. When we analyze Gilgamesh from a Freudian perspective, we can first underline his aspect that he is a creature half-human and half-God.
Enkidu on the other hand, is a creature created by Gods as half-animal  and half-human. We can clearly notice that Enkidu is the other self of the Gilgamesh which balances him and make him a human being.
Without Enkidu, Gilgamesh is a living above humans so, he acts cruelly to other people, forces women to sleep with him and makes many cruelties to his people who are inferior to him. However, with the addition of Enkidu who is inferior from humans and close to animals, Gilgamesh finds himself equal with other humans.
- Relation between the “Epic of Gilgamesh” and “Genesis”
They together make heroic things; Gilgamesh does not continue to act cruelly to the people of his city Uruk. Enkidu is not civilized and rational unlike Gilgamesh although they both have strong ids to be satisfied.
Enkidu can be easily deceived like he was deceived in the forest by Shamhat, the prostitute. There is also a kind of homo-erotic relationship between Enkidu and Gilgamesh which can be explained as the strong attraction and the need to become complete of both sides namely, Enkidu and Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh also represents the group of elites elitism contrary to Enkidu who is more of a ordinary person. That is why Enkidu attacks Gilgamesh in the name of people whose wives are forced to make love by Gilgamesh on the first day of their weddings.
That is why they begin to fight. However, they end up kissing each other and making peace. This is like an uprising of the people against their rulers but finally the restoration of order by a kind of agreement between people and ruler. They know that both sides need and complement each other alter-ego — ego relationship and that is why peace is consolidated with the wishes of both sides. After unifying their power, instead of terrorizing people, Gilgamesh begins thinking about making good to people.
Although Gilgamesh is very willingly to make this journey to kill Humbaba, Enkidu seems involuntary. However, again they complement each other because Gilgamesh inspires Enkidu courage and Enkidu helps him finding Humbaba in the forest. However, the death of Enkidu later again makes Gilgamesh to lose his balance and to seek immortality to become a God.
Am I not like Enkidu? His godlike nature appears again after the loss of his animalistic alter-ego Enkidu. Other stories that included the subject of wide-scale flood, which displaces or wipes out humans that inhabit the world include the Myth of Ziusudra, Atrahasis, and Genesis, through which there are many similarities and distinctions. The similarities are interesting and useful to students of mythology and anthropology for obvious reasons, since the motifs can be traced through space and time giving evidence that these cultures had ties to each other.
The distinctions are, likewise, useful but perhaps for less obvious reasons. Where the stories depart can show how cultures evolve, differ, or intentionally accept or reject the motifs of other, contemporaneous or preceding cultures.
In looking first at the similarities, the evolution of the flood myth can be examined. Ziusudra, from a Sumerian tablet dating to around BCE, provides a flood myth among the oldest in known literature. Ziusudra escapes the flood, which lasts seven days and seven nights by boat, to the island of Dilmun, where he prostates himself before the gods.
The Atrahasis story, found on Akkadian tablets dating to about BCE, depicts the same hero in the same situation. Atrahasis is warned by Enki of the impending flood, speaking to him through a wall, and instructed to build a boat for he and his family to escape the flood which lasts seven days and seven nights. The hunter sees Enkidu as threatening and frightening, and he sends word of and a plan to capture the wild man to Gilgamesh: At the behest of Gilgamesh, the priestess, known as Shamhat Tigay ; Jackson 9goes to Enkidu and seduces him; for six days and seven nights they repeatedly make love.
When at last they rise, Enkidu looks for his animal friends but finds that they have all fled: He felt a strange exhaustion, As if life had left his body.
He felt their absence. He imagined the gazelles raising the dry dust Like soft brush floating on the crests of sand Swiftly changing direction, and the serpents Asleep at the springs, slipping effortlessly Into the water, and the wild she-camel Vanishing into the desert.
His friends Had left him to a vast aloneness He had never felt before.
The Gilgamesh Epic and its Relationship to other Mesopotamian Myths – part 1-
The lions returned To the mountains, the water buffalo To the rivers, the birds to the sky. Mason 18 Enkidu attempts to run after the animals, but his knees fail him; stricken with grief, he goes through the first of several periods of Animal and Human Nature in Gilgamesh PLL depression, here caused by the permanent loss of his identification with animal nature.
Shamhat then proceeds to humanize and civilize Enkidu by teaching him the language and laws of human society, clothes him, builds up his ego, and eventually takes him to the city. They held very important positions in the temples of ancient Mesopotamia, and their functions, connected to the worship of a deity, included sexual rites: Each of the traditions distinguishes between human, as against subhuman life, behavior and animal Inanna is in many ways the exact thematic opposite of Gilgamesh.
Rather than emphasize sexual disunion and represent the severance of human and non-human nature, Inanna celebrates sexual union and the harmony of humanity with domesticated non-human nature—such as agriculture and animal husbandry.
In a ritualized marriage, Inanna unites with the shepherd Dumuzi12 in order to spark fertility in the cultivated fields, yet, as Westling states, conflict is evident between the pastoral world of Dumuzi and the farming one of Inanna.
Dumuzi is alternatively identified with plants and bulls, as Westling notes: The figure of the hierodule in Gilgamesh differs from the Inanna of the hymns in her intentions: Rather than seeing an invio- lable sense of ritualized, cultural harmony evident in Inanna, the tensions between Inanna and Dumuzi evident already in this work show up much exacerbated—between Inanna and Gilgamesh—in Gilgamesh.
These unresolved tensions lead to the civilizing of Enkidu, as well as the tragic consequences of the story. As soon as he arrives in the city of Uruk, Enkidu meets Gilgamesh and blocks his way at the very threshold of the bride house.
The Gilgamesh Epic and its Relationship to other Mesopotamian Myths - part 1- Archaeology Review
They viciously fight, evenly matched, until near exhaustion, they fall and crush the doors of the sacred house. Their ensuing friend- ship is described in very intimate terms; it seems—especially in light of the foiled bride house ceremony—that their new rela- tionship takes the place of the ritual marriage.
Initially Enkidu expresses great fear of Humbaba: I learned, Enkidu said, when I lived With the animals never to go down Into that forest. I learned that there is death In Humbaba. Why do you want To raise his anger? Mason 28 Gilgamesh pays him little heed and, after some persuasion, convinces both Enkidu and the elders of Uruk that the enter- prise is sound.
Ozan Örmeci Makaleler (Ozan Örmeci Articles): Enkidu as Alter-Ego of Gilgamesh
The disastrous consequences of their decision are first made evident when Enkidu touches the gate to the great cedar forest; his left hand becomes paralyzed and then pain spreads throughout his entire left side. That night he is unable to sleep and ironically is frightened by real and imagined animals: But alone and awake the size and nature Of the creatures in his mind grow monstrous, Beyond resemblance to the creatures he had known Before the prostitute had come into his life.
Animal and Human Nature in Gilgamesh PLL He cried aloud for them to stop appearing over him Emerging from behind the trees with phosphorescent eyes. Mason Images of his former companions, whom he had run with and freed from traps, now appear as frightening monsters.
The trauma and dissociation Enkidu has been made to undergo begin to make themselves terribly evident. Enkidu here is akin to an enslaved, or at least seduced, former wild animal made to undergo traumatic cultural experimentation.The Epic of Gilgamesh: Crash Course World Mythology #26
He also may be likened to a wolf who, when domesticated, is used to kill other wolves—as soon becomes apparent in his battle with Humbaba.
The next day Gilgamesh begins to chop down the cedar trees. Drawn by the sounds of destruction, Humbaba appears, and the two humans then manage to kill him. Just before dying, Humbaba pleads for his life, but strangely it is Enkidu who argues against sparing him and, together with Gilgamesh, deliv- ers the final blows, beheading him. Harrison, however, offers another, more compelling possible reason: If Gilgamesh resolves to kill the forest demon, or to deforest the Cedar Mountain, it is because forests represent the quintessence of what lies beyond the walls of the city, namely the earth in its enduring transcendence.