French and Indian War | Causes, Facts, & Summary | hair-restore.info
The British victory in the French and Indian War had a great impact on the of the colonial resentment towards British imperial policies that led to the American . Anglo-American Relations After the French and Indian War on the continent, the relationship between the colonists and the British grows increasingly strained . The French and Indian War (–) altered the relationship between Britain between Britain and its North American colonies between and
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message Fort Le Boeuf in In the spring ofthe French began to build a series of forts in the Ohio Country. In the spring ofPaul Marin de la Malgue was given command of a 2,man force of Troupes de la Marine and Indians. His orders were to protect the King's land in the Ohio Valley from the British. As he moved south, he drove off or captured British traders, alarming both the British and the Iroquois.
Tanaghrisson was a chief of the Mingo Indians, who were remnants of Iroquois and other tribes who had been driven west by colonial expansion.
He intensely disliked the French whom he accused of killing and eating his father. He traveled to Fort Le Boeuf and threatened the French with military action, which Marin contemptuously dismissed. Johnson was known to the Iroquois as Warraghiggey, meaning "he who does great things.
Mohawk Chief Hendrick was the speaker of their tribal council, and he insisted that the British abide by their obligations[ which? Clinton did not respond to his satisfaction, and Hendrick said that the " Covenant Chain " was broken, a long-standing friendly relationship between the Iroquois Confederacy and the British Crown. Virginia's response InGeorge Washingtonof the Virginia Regimentwas dispatched to warn the French to leave Virginian territory.
Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia was an investor in the Ohio Company, which stood to lose money if the French held their claim. Over dinner, Washington presented Saint-Pierre with the letter from Dinwiddie demanding an immediate French withdrawal from the Ohio Country. Saint-Pierre said, "As to the Summons you send me to retire, I do not think myself obliged to obey it. He stated in his report, "The French had swept south",  detailing the steps which they had taken to fortify the area, and their intention to fortify the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.
He purchased their construction tools to continue building what became Fort Duquesne. He then learned of a French scouting party in the area, so he combined Tanaghrisson's force with his own and surprised the Canadians on May 28 in what became known as the Battle of Jumonville Glen. They killed many of the Canadians, including their commanding officer Joseph Coulon de Jumonvillewhose head was reportedly split open by Tanaghrisson with a tomahawk.
Historian Fred Anderson suggests that Tanaghrisson was acting to gain the support of the British and to regain authority over his own people. They had been inclined to support the French, with whom they had long trading relationships. One of Tanaghrisson's men told Contrecoeur that Jumonville had been killed by British musket fire. Washington with his war council during the Battle of Fort Necessity.
After deliberations, it was decided to withdraw, and surrender the fort. Following the battle, Washington pulled back several miles and established Fort Necessitywhich the Canadians attacked under the command of Jummonville's brother at the Battle of Fort Necessity on July 3.
Washington surrendered and negotiated a withdrawal under arms. One of his men reported that the Canadian force was accompanied by ShawneeDelawareand Mingo warriors—just those whom Tanaghrisson was seeking to influence. After several months of negotiations, the government of the Duke of Newcastle decided to send an army expedition the following year to dislodge the French.
Admiral Edward Hawke detached a fast squadron to North America in an attempt to intercept them. In Junethe British captured French naval ships sent to provide war materials to the Acadian and Mi'kmaq militias in Nova Scotia. In a second British action, Admiral Edward Boscawen fired on the French ship Alcide on June 8,capturing her and two troop ships.
These actions contributed to the eventual formal declarations of war in spring The goal of the congress was to formalize a unified front in trade and negotiations with various Indians, since allegiance of the various tribes and nations was seen to be pivotal in the war that was unfolding.
The plan that the delegates agreed to was neither ratified by the colonial legislatures nor approved of by the Crown.
Nevertheless, the format of the congress and many specifics of the plan became the prototype for confederation during the War of Independence. British campaigns, The British formed an aggressive plan of operations for Sir William Johnson was to capture Fort St. The battle saw the British attempt to take the Fort Duquesne repulsed. Braddock led about 1, army troops and provincial militia on the Braddock expedition in June to take Fort Duquesne, with George Washington as one of his aides.
The expedition was a disaster. It was attacked by French regulars, Canadian militiamenand Indian warriors ambushing them from hiding places up in trees and behind logs, and Braddock called for a retreat.
He was killed and approximately 1, British soldiers were killed or injured. Washington and Thomas Gage played key roles in organizing the retreat—two future opponents in the American Revolutionary War. The government initiated a plan to increase their military capability in preparation for war following news of Braddock's defeat and the start of parliament's session in November Shirley's efforts to fortify Oswego were bogged down in logistical difficulties, exacerbated by his inexperience in managing large expeditions.
Effects Of The War
In conjunction, he was made aware that the French were massing for an attack on Fort Oswego in his absence when he planned to attack Fort Niagara.
Supplies were cached at Fort Bull for use in the projected attack on Niagara. Johnson's expedition was better organized than Shirley's, which was noticed by New France's governor the Marquis de Vaudreuil. He had been concerned about the extended supply line to the forts on the Ohio, and he had sent Baron Dieskau to lead the defenses at Frontenac against Shirley's expected attack. Vaudreuil saw Johnson as the larger threat and sent Dieskau to Fort St. Dieskau planned to attack the British encampment at Fort Edward at the upper end of navigation on the Hudson Riverbut Johnson had strongly fortified it, and Dieskau's Indian support was reluctant to attack.
The battle ended inconclusively, with both sides withdrawing from the field. Johnson's advance stopped at Fort William Henry, and the French withdrew to Ticonderoga Point, where they began the construction of Fort Carillon later renamed Fort Ticonderoga after the British captured it in British raid on the Acadian settlement of Grimross.
Robert Dinwiddie determined to act. After that mission failed, the Ohio Company of Virginia, which had received a special grant of upper Ohio Valley land, was encouraged to build a fort at the convergence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers modern Pittsburghwith the understanding that troops from Virginia would support the undertaking. The Newberry Library The French, however, were too quick. Descending the Allegheny in large numbers in the spring ofFrench troops overwhelmed the uncompleted fort before Virginia militia under Col.
Joshua Fry could arrive. The French could not ignore such a provocation and descended upon Fort Necessity, besieging it on July 3. Although Washington had been reinforced with militia troops from Virginia and a company of regular British infantry from North Carolina, the combined French and Indian force outnumbered the defenders roughly two to one. Washington surrendered the fort, which was then burned by the French, and withdrew with his forces to Virginia.
The government of Virginia appealed to London for assistance. Edward Braddock to go to Virginia with a force and eject the French from Fort Duquesne and its environs.
Edward Boscawen was sent into the region of the Gulf of St. Lawrence with a powerful fleet to prevent further reinforcement of French troops from arriving in Canada. The war thus begun to defend British territorial claims in the Ohio Valley spread like wildfire across the continent.
French and Indian War - Wikipedia
Early French successes The first four years saw nothing but severe reverses for the British regulars and American colonials, primarily because of superior French land forces in the New World. Braddock was killed and his army scattered in July when the force was ambushed while approaching Fort Duquesne. In July Gen. Despite outnumbering the French defenders under Gen. Moreover, the frontier settlements in what are now central New Yorkcentral Pennsylvania, western Marylandand western Virginia were deserted while thousands of families fled eastward in panic to escape the hostilities.
Braddock, EdwardLithograph depicting the mortally wounded Edward Braddock being carried from the field after a battle near Fort Duquesne, Library of Congress, Washington, D.
French and Indian War
British authorities held the region to be a part of Nova Scotia, ceded by France in the April treaty of Utrecht. As no large contingent of British soldiers was available to garrison the area and subdue the pro-French populace, the British authorities at Halifax decided to disperse the Acadians as a war measure. Transports carried most of the Acadians away from their villages in western Nova Scotia and distributed them among the British colonies to the south.