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In the manor house or castle, the lord was served by his peasants and supported Economic feudalism refers to the relationship between a lord and his free peasants, Contains precribed medieval manners and advice concerning society. Form of Therapy . Who's the feudal lord and who's the stop asking whos the boy and whos the girl in a gay relationship but instead ask. Form of Therapy . Who's the feudal lord and who's the stop asking whos the boy and whos the girl in a gay relationship but instead ask.
Woman of the BedchamberLady of the Bedchamber or Mistress of the Robesdepending on which of these offices she holds. The Women are in regular attendance, but the Mistress of the Robes and the Ladies of the Bedchamber are normally required only for ceremonial occasions. The phrase Lady-in-Waiting to The Queen has, however, been used in formal documents to denote which of the Women is actually "on duty" at any one time.
Conventionally, these women could work their way up from maids to ladies-in-waiting, concubinesor even queen consort. The six favorite court ladies of King Sisowath of Cambodia were probably initially drawn from the ranks of classical royal dancers of the lower class.
He was noted for having the most classical dancers as concubines. The imperial celestial dancer, Apsarawas one of these. This practice of drawing from the ranks of royal dancers began in the Golden Age of the Khmer Kingdom. China[ edit ] Chinese Tang dynasty court ladies on A Palace Concert painting The ladies-in-waiting in China, referred to as palace women, palace ladies or court ladies, were all formally if not always in practice a part of the emperors harem, regardless of their task, and could be promoted by him to the rank of official concubine, consort or even empress.
Imperial women, consisting of concubines and consorts; Imperial daughters, consisting of daughters and sisters of the emperor; and the female officials and assistants, who performed a wide range of tasks and could potentially be promoted to that of concubine or consort.
This hierarchy was roughly in place from the 16th century until the death of king Christian IX of Denmark in The court life of the Duchy of Burgundy served as an example when Edward IV created the Black Book of the Household in and the organisation of the English royal household was essentially set from that point onward. The organization of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting was set in the period of the Tudor court. The ladies-in-waiting were headed by the Mistress of the Robesfollowed in rank by the First Lady of the Bedchamberwho supervised the group of Lady of the Bedchamber typically wives or widows of peers above the rank of earlin turn followed by the group of Woman of the Bedchamber usually a daughter of a peer and finally the group of Maid of honourwhose service entitled them to the style of The Honourable for life.
However, in practice, many offices have since then been left vacant. For example, in recent times, Maids of Honour have only been appointed for coronations. Marie Louise of Savoy-Carignan, Princesse de Lamballe was lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Antoinette of France The queen of France is confirmed to have had a separate household in the late 12th-century, and an ordinance from notes that the queen of France, queen Joan I of Navarrehad a group of five ladies Dames and maids-in-waiting Damoiselles: The Surintendante and the Governess of the Children of France were the only female office holders in France to give an oath of loyalty to the King himself.
At the Imperial German court, the ladies-in-waiting were composed of one Oberhofmeisterin in charge of several Hofstaatsdamen or Palastdamen. The only specifically female dignity was that of the Zoste patrikiathe chief lady-in-waiting and female attendant of the empress, who was the head of the women's court and often a relative of the empress; this title existed at least since the 9th-century. The Kingdom of Greece was established in and its first queen Amalia of Oldenburg organized the ladies-in-waiting of its first royal court in one Grande-Maitresse, followed by the second rank dame d'honneur, and the third rank dame de palais.
The ladies-in-waiting of the queen of the Two Sicilies were, in composed of one Dama di Onore or 'Lady of Honor', placed in rank as number two after the Cavaliere di Onore, and followed by three Dama di Compagnia or 'Lady Companions' number four in rank after the Cavalerizzo and a large number of Dame di Corte or 'Court Ladies'. It is short for gungjung yeogwan, which translates as "a lady officer of the royal court".
The term is also used more broadly to encompass women in a lower class without a rank such as musuri lowest maids in charge of odd choresgaksimi, sonnim, uinyeo female physicians as well as nain and sanggung.
In the 19th-century, the ladies-in-waiting of the Dutch court was headed by the Grootmeesteres 'Grand Mistress', equivalent to Mistress of the Robesof second rank was the Dames du Palais married ladies-in-waitingfollowed by the third rank Hofdames 'court ladies', equivalent to maid of honour.
They accompanied the Queen and the other female members of the Royal House during visits and receptions at the Royal Court. The monarch paid for their expenses, but they did not receive any salary.
Not all of these ladies were members of the Dutch aristocracy, but each had a "notable" husband. Excellent social behavior and discretion was the most important recommendation for becoming a Hofdame. Queen Maxima of the Netherlands reduced the number of Hofdames to three, hers being: However, rather than liberating, this ordinance might be construed to imply that women were less skilled or not "masters" of their trades.
feudal lord and handmaiden meme
To learn a skill or trade, middle class women, especially those of the town would have to serve an apprenticeship. Both men and women could take apprentices, although women usually did so in conjunction with their husbands. The apprenticeship agreement, made between two families, was a legal document called an indenture.
The following is an extract of an indenture in which John Nougle of London apprentices his sister, Katherine, in Husbands and wives frequently worked together, the wife helping her husband when he was at home, and acting for him in his absence.
When a man died, his wife was often capable of continuing the business and the ordinances of the guilds allowed her to do so. Although these widows and other "femme soles" were frequently allowed to enter the guilds, they seldom were allowed to control the guilds or become jurees, supervisors of other workers.
As the economy flourished, men, who were in control of the guilds, found other ways to restrict the activity of women to the home and shop. Although a womaqn might be active in the manufacture of a product, she was seldom allowed to market it. Eventually she was also restricted to the lower level of production. A woman could not become a master dyer, for example, because she was not permitted to lift the cloth from the vats.
In another guild ordinance, a woman pastry-maker pistrix was not permitted to carry more than one box of biscuits across the town.
In Paris, women participated in over trades, some of which were practiced only by women and some by men and women. IN the 's women were practicing some trades that were later restricted to men. There were women barbers, apothecaries, armorers, shipwrights, tailors and spurriers. In Paris we find records of women in building trades, such as masons, carpenters, makers of doors and diggers of gravel.
However nearly all trades had fewer women than men and in many trades the number declined as time went on. In n London, only 20 out of brewers were female.
This was a trade which many women had practiced in the early Middle Ages. Many of the trades in the industry were practiced only by women. The women were not only spinners and weavers; they made ribbons, kerchiefs, fringes, tassles, laces, caps, purses and other small articles of silk. They were also able to serve as jurees, who supervised workers and served as elected officers sworn to uphold the regulations and standards of their craft. In in England, they banded together to complain to the King about Nicholas Sardouche who was monopolizing the supply of crude silk and selling it to them at higher prices.
An inquiry was made and Sardouche was found guilty. These women had a strong sense of identity and always mentioned their occupation when acting in any legal or public capacity. Nuremberg was an important urban center and was also an example for other cities in that it assumed control of the public welfare and hygiene from an early date Hanawalt, p.
There was also a concern that more women could be trained. Regulations were made and careful records were kept. Payments made to midwives compare well with salaries of craftsmen at the journeyman level depending on how many births a midwife attended. The average was per week. From the ordinances sworn to and from legal cases we can get an idea of the variety of activities in which midwives were involved.
The city council provided and paid for the services of a midwife for every indigent mother. Midwives were not allowed to dispense strong drugs although they could arrange for the apothecary to do so. Bonuses were offered to encourage the acceptance of an apprentice who would train for a period of four years. Midwives were used by physicians in all female physical examinations and they also did cesarean sections on dead or dying mothers. They probably also did other minor surgery, especially for women.
They distributed public welfare such as alms to indigent mothers, served various religious functions such as participating in the baptismal ceremonies and gave legal testimony. Her station, as well as her pay, was probably equal to that of a journeyman. There is occasional mention of women doctors. Women were studying medicine in Salerno as early as the 11th century.
However, they were restricted in London and forbidden to study medicine in Paris. Another field in which we find women craftworkers is in book production and decorations.
There were women scribes, illuminators, binders and one mention of a book publisher. As book production became more secular, women found employment, again usually in the shops of their husbands, fathers or brothers.
In The City of Ladies, Christine de Pizan praises the work of a Parisian illuminator named Anastasia and in the accounts of King John of France for January,we find the name of Marguerite the binder, who was paid for rebinding a copy of the Bible. The vocabulary brewster, ale-wife indicates that women played a prominent part in this profession.
However the brewers outnumbered the brewsters and gradually tried to exclude the women from brewing.
Baxters also were numerous. Some had bake-houses or carts of their own, but many were merely regratresses who carried the bread around and sold it door-to-door. This medieval working woman was a member of the urban lower middle class or perhaps of the urban poor.
These women were not considered to be citizens of the city in which they lived although they may have been born there. Many were immigrants from the countryside.
We know the least about this group. What we know comes from public records. They are the working women of the lesser crafts, street-vendors and servants. Among things sold in this fashion were fish fish-mongering was considered to be a good business with the many fast dayspoultry, dairy products, charcoal and staples such as oats, salt and flour. Domestic servants, mostly single women, were the worst-paid women workers.
Medieval Life: Squires, Maidens and Peasants
They frequently worked mainly or entirely for their keep. Women in this group were often forced to expand their income by prostitution or thievery. Domestic servants, prostitutes, retailers, brewsters and food-preparers required little in the way of longterm detailed instructions.
These women worked in occupations that used skills learned informally within the family context. Their typical "female" skills were marketable only in occupations like domestic service, food retailing, cloth manufacture, the nursing and nurturing of children and even prostitution.
Peasant women were expected to share in all their husbands' labor on the farm. In addition to agricultural labors they had all the traditional household chores.
Charged with children and overcharged by landlords What they may spare in spinning, they spend on rental On milk or on meal to make porridge To still the sobbing of the children at meal times.
Also themselves suffer much hunger And woe in wintertime, with waking at night To rise to the bedside to rock the cradle Both to card, and to comb, to clout And to wash, to rub and to reel And rushes to peel. The woe of these women who dwell in hovels Is too sad to speak of or to say in rhyme. The main feudal obligation of the female serf was to spin and weave a fixed quantity of material every year for the lord of the manor.
A woman could free herself from this obligation by paying a fixed sum or by donating a certain amount of wine or poultry.
The tenant farmer's wife would use money earned by spinning to pay the rent. This was frequently the only cash generated. She also worked with her husband in the field, sowing, reaping, gleaning, binding, threshing, and winnowing and sometimes even ploughing. She took her spinning to the field with her to occupy her spare time! There were several options for unmarried country girls. They could remain on their father's land and work for him or their brothers in return for food and lodging.