Sodium, Potassium, and Stroke - Sodium Breakup
Diets that were more potassium-rich or had lower sodium-potassium ratios were associated with higher diet costs, while sodium intakes were. If you have kidney disease, it's crucial that you maintain low potassium levels. If your potassium spikes suddenly, you may experience difficulty breathing, chest. A large amount of a low potassium food can turn into a high- potassium food. If you are on Mango(1 medium), Chinese Cabbage, Salt Substitutes/Lite Salt.
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The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among US adults
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Blood Pressure : Why potassium helps to lower blood pressure
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Why potassium helps
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You agree to keep Your Account information and password confidential. You may not share Your Account information or password with a third party. The examination protocol and data collection methods are fully documented elsewhere. In creating the database CNPP assumed that all foods and beverages were obtained from stores. Accordingly the database did not permit estimations of actual food expenditures.
More recent data is not available. Diet cost was estimated for all foods and beverages including alcohol. Tap and bottled water were excluded from the price estimation. The energy-adjusted cost variable is more meaningful when comparing sub-populations that may have different energy requirements or intakes.
K ratio, and energy adjusted diet cost were estimated for each independent variable. Age-adjusted means were calculated using direct standardization.
Family income-to-poverty ratio IPR adjusted for the number of adults and children in each family and is the ratio of the family income to the federal poverty level. Analyses of education were limited to adults 25 years-old or greater, since most have completed their education by this point. Household food security was included as an additional independent variable. Individuals were dichotomized as being either fully food secure or food insecure.
Statistical heterogeneity in diet cost, Na: K ratio and sodium and potassium densities were assessed with a survey-weighted Wald test and trends in ordinal variables were assessed using a survey-weighted linear regression model with price as the outcome of interest, a categorical covariate to adjust for age and a grouped linear variable for the independent variable of interest e.
The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among US adults
Analyses of the association between energy-adjusted diet costs, potassium and sodium density, and the Na: K ratio, used survey-weighted linear regression models, with energy-adjusted diet cost as the outcome and quintiles of the dietary factors of interest as the independent variable. Survey-weighted marginal means, representing the mean value at the average covariate distribution for the population of interest, were estimated after each model. The weighted median and inter-quartile range for energy-adjusted diet cost was estimated by sodium and potassium density and Na: Pairwise comparisons were made between each quintile and the third quintile reference group for each analysis using a survey-weighted Wald test.
Linear trends were evaluated by including a grouped linear variable for sodium and potassium density and the Na: Given concerns that the linear trend in diet cost by sodium quintile was influenced by the higher costs observed in the highest quintile, we conducted sensitivity analysis of the trend tests by omitting the highest quintile. Additional secondary analyses evaluated whether the association between sodium and potassium density and the Na: K varied by population sub-group e.
Potassium was the focus of this secondary analysis because we observed that potassium was highly cost-sensitive, but sodium was not. Therefore, decreasing sodium intakes is unlikely to have an economic component, but increasing potassium may. K ratio less than or equal to 1. These analyses were performed for foods as reported by participants so they account for the frequency with which salt is added during preparation of foods but not added at the table.
Therefore these results may over-estimate the potential benefit of cooked vegetables or other foods where salt is added at the table on the Na: Identifying Foods Associated with favorable Na: