In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the inflation rate falls below 0% (a negative inflation . correlation: for a given percentage decrease in the monetary base the result is Additionally, the velocity of the monetary base is interest rate sensitive, the. Deflation is a macroeconomic condition where a country usually by lowering interest rates to stimulate the economy – equity prices will be. To control inflation, RBI increases repo rate to limit the purchasing power o To overcome deflation, RBI decreases repo rate to bring liquidity in market and increase What is the typical relationship between time and interest rates?.
She was careful to indicate that rates would stay low for the near future and when and if rate increases begin, they will be measured. The Fed, like central bankers elsewhere, stays committed to a 2 percent inflation target as it continues a policy driven by a fear of deflationa fear that is not supported by either good economic theory or economic history properly interpreted.
Bagus points out In the economic mainstream, there are basically two main strands in contemporary deflation theories. The first strand can be represented by economists who in some way are inspired by Keynesian theories like Ben Bernanke, Lars E.
Svensson, Marvin Goodfriend, or Paul Krugman. The first group fears that price deflation might put the economy in a liquidity trap and opposes all price deflation categorically. It represents the deflation phobia in its clearest form. It is these theorists and their colleagues who currently dominate central bank thinking and make the case weak and often only asserted as an imperative for a positive inflation buffer. Bagus does recognize a second group of mainstream economists with a more balanced view of deflation: Lane, and Angela Redish.
Inspired by the Chicago School, the second group is more free market oriented. Bordo, for instance, received his doctoral degree from the University of Chicago. This group distinguishes between two types of deflation: Deflation Leads to Increases in Real Interest Rates, Which Brings Recovery However, the main water carriers against this erroneous overemphasis by economists and the mainstream press on the alleged evils of deflation have been the Austrians.
Salerno begins with examining why it is so unpleasant when an economy must adjust to fix the malinvestments and overconsumption that appeared in the boom phase: The ABCT, when correctly formulated, does indeed explain the asymmetry between the boom and bust phases of the business cycle.
The malinvestment and overconsumption that occur during the inflationary boom cause a shattering of the production structure that accounts for the pervasive unemployment and impoverishment that is observed during the recession.
This "hoarding" behavior is seen as undesirable by most economists, as Hayek points out: It is agreed that hoarding money, whether in cash or in idle balances, is deflationary in its effects.
No one thinks that deflation is in itself desirable. For example, in the late 19th century, populists in the US wanted debt relief or to move off the new gold standard and onto a silver standard the supply of silver was increasing relatively faster than the supply of gold, making silver less deflationary than goldbimetal standard, or paper money like the recently ended Greenbacks.
Debt deflation A deflationary spiral is a situation where decreases in price lead to lower production, which in turn leads to lower wages and demand, which leads to further decreases in price. In science, this effect is also known as a positive feedback loop. Another economic example of this principle is a bank run. The Great Depression was regarded by some as a deflationary spiral. Another related idea is Irving Fisher 's theory that excess debt can cause a continuing deflation.
Whether deflationary spirals can actually occur is controversial, with their possibility being disputed by freshwater economists including the Chicago school of economics and Austrian School economists. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message During severe deflation, targeting an interest rate the usual method of determining how much currency to create may be ineffective, because even lowering the short-term interest rate to zero may result in a real interest rate which is too high to attract credit-worthy borrowers.
In the 21st century negative interest rate has been tried, but it can't be too negative, since people might withdraw cash from bank accounts if they have negative interest rate. Thus the central bank must directly set a target for the quantity of money called " quantitative easing " and may use extraordinary methods to increase the supply of money, e.
Until the s, it was commonly believed by economists that deflation would cure itself. As prices decreased, demand would naturally increase and the economic system would correct itself without outside intervention.
This view was challenged in the s during the Great Depression. Keynesian economists argued that the economic system was not self-correcting with respect to deflation and that governments and central banks had to take active measures to boost demand through tax cuts or increases in government spending. Reserve requirements from the central bank were high compared to recent times.
So were it not for redemption of currency for gold in accordance with the gold standardthe central bank could have effectively increased money supply by simply reducing the reserve requirements and through open market operations e. With the rise of monetarist ideas, the focus in fighting deflation was put on expanding demand by lowering interest rates i. This view has received a setback in light of the failure of accommodative policies in both Japan and the US to spur demand after stock market shocks in the early s and in —02, respectively.
Austrian economists worry about the inflationary impact of monetary policies on asset prices. Sustained low real rates can cause higher asset prices and excessive debt accumulation. Therefore, lowering rates may prove to be only a temporary palliative, aggravating an eventual debt deflation crisis.
Special borrowing arrangements[ edit ] When the central bank has lowered nominal interest rates to zero, it can no longer further stimulate demand by lowering interest rates.
This is the famous liquidity trap. When deflation takes hold, it requires " special arrangements " to lend money at a zero nominal rate of interest which could still be a very high real rate of interest, due to the negative inflation rate in order to artificially increase the money supply. Capital[ edit ] Although the values of capital assets are often casually said to deflate when they decline, this usage is not consistent with the usual definition of deflation; a more accurate description for a decrease in the value of a capital asset is economic depreciation.
Another term, the accounting conventions of depreciation are standards to determine a decrease in values of capital assets when market values are not readily available or practical. Hong Kong[ edit ] Following the Asian financial crisis in lateHong Kong experienced a long period of deflation which did not end until the 4th quarter of The Hong Kong dollar however, was pegged to the US dollarleading to an adjustment instead by a deflation of consumer prices.
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The situation was worsened by the increasingly cheap exports from Mainland Chinaand "weak consumer confidence" in Hong Kong. This deflation was accompanied by an economic slump that was more severe and prolonged than those of the surrounding countries that devalued their currencies in the wake of the Asian financial crisis.
This is the first time deflation has hit the Irish economy since Overall consumer prices decreased by 1. Mr Lenihan said month-on-month there has been a 6. The Minister mentions the deflation as an item of data helpful to the arguments for a cut in certain benefits.
The alleged economic harm caused by deflation is not alluded to or mentioned by this member of government. This is a notable example of deflation in the modern era being discussed by a senior financial Minister without any mention of how it might be avoided, or whether it should be. September Learn how and when to remove this template message Deflation started in the early s. In Julythe zero-rate policy was ended. Systemic reasons for deflation in Japan can be said to include: The Bank of Japan kept monetary policy loose only when inflation was below zero, tightening whenever deflation ends.
Japan has an aging population The Japanese death rate recently exceeded its birth rate. In the case of Japan asset price deflation was a mean reversion or correction back to the price level that prevailed before the asset bubble. There was a rather large price bubble in stocks and especially real estate in Japan in the s peaking in late Banks lent to companies and individuals that invested in real estate.
When real estate values dropped, these loans could not be paid. The banks could try to collect on the collateral landbut this wouldn't pay off the loan. Banks delayed that decision, hoping asset prices would improve. These delays were allowed by national banking regulators. Some banks made even more loans to these companies that are used to service the debt they already had. Improving bankruptcy law, land transfer law, and tax law have been suggested by The Economist as methods to speed this process and thus end the deflation.
Banks with a larger percentage of their loans which are "non-performing", that is to say, they are not receiving payments on them, but have not yet written them off, cannot lend more money; they must increase their cash reserves to cover the bad loans. Fear of insolvent banks: Japanese people are afraid that banks will collapse so they prefer to buy United States or Japanese Treasury bonds instead of saving their money in a bank account.
This likewise means the money is not available for lending and therefore economic growth. This means that the savings rate depresses consumption, but does not appear in the economy in an efficient form to spur new investment.
People also save by owning real estate, further slowing growth, since it inflates land prices. Japan imports Chinese and other countries' inexpensive consumable goods due to lower wages and fast growth in those countries and inexpensive raw materials, many of which reached all time real price minimums in the early s.
Thus, prices of imported products are decreasing. Domestic producers must match these prices in order to remain competitive. This decreases prices for many things in the economy, and thus is deflationary.
According to both Austrian and monetarist economic theory, Keynesian 'stimulus' spending actually has a depressing effect. This is because the government is competing against private industry, and usurping private investment dollars. According to these economic schools, that 'stimulus' money actually perpetuated the problem it was intended to cure.
The motivation for this policy change was to finance World War I; one of the results was inflation, and a rise in the gold price, along with the corresponding drop in international exchange rates for the pound. When the pound was returned to the gold standard after the war it was done on the basis of the pre-war gold price, which, since it was higher than equivalent price in gold, required prices to fall to realign with the higher target value of the pound.
A credit contraction caused by a financial crisis in England drained specie out of the U. The Bank of the United States also contracted its lending. Most damaging was the price of cotton, the U. Food crop prices, which had been high because of the famine of that was caused by the year without a summerfell after the return of normal harvests in Improved transportation, mainly from turnpikes, and to a minor extent the introduction of steamboats, significantly lowered transportation costs. The magnitude of this contraction is only matched by the Great Depression.
Historical examples of credit deflation This "deflation" satisfies both definitions, that of a decrease in prices and a decrease in the available quantity of money. It was possibly spurred by return to a gold standard, retiring paper money printed during the Civil War. The Great Sag of —96 could be near the top of the list.
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Its scope was global. It featured cost-cutting and productivity-enhancing technologies. It flummoxed the experts with its persistence, and it resisted attempts by politicians to understand it, let alone reverse it.
Between andaccording to Milton Friedmanprices fell in the United States by 1. Wells gives an account of the period and discusses the great advances in productivity which Wells argues were the cause of the deflation.
The productivity gains matched the deflation. From the standpoint of the Fisher equation see abovethere was a concomitant drop both in money supply credit and the velocity of money which was so profound that price deflation took hold despite the increases in money supply spurred by the Federal Reserve.
Minor deflations in the United States[ edit ] Throughout the history of the United States, inflation has approached zero and dipped below for short periods of time negative inflation is deflation. This was quite common in the 19th century, and in the 20th century until the permanent abandonment of the gold standard for the Bretton Woods system in In the past 60 years, the United States has only experienced deflation two times.
Once in with the financial crisis.