the relationship between the colonized, an Indian doctor, and the colonizer, a British schoolmaster. This paper aims to explore. Albert Memmi's. Confiscated by colonial police throughout the world since its publication, The Colonizer and the Colonized is an important document of our times. Western Africa - Colonization: The European scramble to partition and occupy In this connection a difference of theory began to be discernible between French but not their rights), who could only qualify for citizenship after stringent tests.
All the ignorant native people who indirectly are influenced and made dependent towards European are colonized. If we see the activities between European visitors and the real native people of African lands, we can see the clear relation between colonizers and colonized.Spanish colonization - Period 1: 1491-1607 - AP US History - Khan Academy
Joseph Conrad The colonizers are trying their best to colonize the people economically, socially, politically and mentally in different areas. Colonizers use different ways to colonize the people. In Heart of Darkness the very important action is the intention of collecting Ivory. Ivory symbolizes the white man's greed and the white man's commercial mentality.
The white man's chief concern in the Congo is to collect ivory and send it to Europe. The greater the ivory collected, the greater is his achievement.
Ivory is a kind of money, which European wants to collect and take in their own control. By doing this, they want to exploit the natives economically. The European trading company is the institutional representation of the colonizer to colonize the native economically. This event shows the intention of European countries during the eighteenth century.
By entering into so many third world countries they collected the raw materials and sold their commodities in those countries.
By doing this, they succeeded in ruling over those countries politically to which is one of the crucial points to show the exploiting nature of colonizer towards the colonized.
But only the prospect of the most lucrative prizes could induce private European investors to place substantial amounts of capital in Africa in advance of adequate European administrations that could guarantee the safety and security of their investments and in advance of the economic infrastructures that would ensure their efficient deployment. The only lure that really operated to attract European investment in advance of the provision of such services was the prospect of rich mineral deposits.
Western Africa - Colonization | hair-restore.info
The possibilities of diamond mining in Sierra Leone and the Gold Coast were not really recognized until the s. In effect then, it was only the gold of the Gold Coast and Asante forests and, to a lesser extent, the tin of the Bauchi plateau in central Nigeria, that attracted the early attention of European investors. Modern methods of gold mining first began to be employed on the Gold Coast as early asbut the industry could not make much headway before By that time the colonial government had taken the decisive steps of defeating Asante, beginning to build a railway system, and establishing an effective civil administration in the relevant areas, which could ensure proper land surveys and some means of controlling and adjudicating disputes over the ownership of land and the validity of concessions of it.
Bauchi tin mining began much later, inbut similar, if less acute, difficulties prevented much progress before Despite their poverty, and despite the risk of saddling the home governments and taxpayers with unwanted expenditure, colonial governments found that there was no alternative to their providing the basic infrastructures needed by the vast territories they claimed to rule.
Gisèle Rabesahala pedagogical unit 1 | Women
It was impossible to wait for private European enterprise to provide railways, harbours, telegraph lines, roads, medical services, schools, and all the other things that were needed to support an effective government, let alone to provide some possibility of economic growth sufficient to pay for better government.
French territories The problems facing the French were much more formidable than those facing the British. The British colonies were essentially based on territories close to the sea, in which European trade had been long established and whose African peoples were already accustomed to producing for the world market.
The French had such a colony in Senegal, but from this they had expanded over vast, remote, and thinly populated territories that required very considerable investment before they could be efficiently administered or developed. By and large the French public had appreciably less capital to invest overseas than the British public had. As early as work was begun on a railway to link the heads of navigation of the two rivers at Kayes and at Bamako which became the capital of the French Sudan.
The construction of an effective west—east transport system from the coast to the upper Niger thus took some 42 years to complete, and the only part of it that was profitable was that serving the peanut-growing areas of Senegal. There was a lag of some 20 years after before the thinly populated and impoverished French Sudan could respond to the stimulus of its improved communications with the outside world.
Relation between Colonizer and Colonized in Heart of Darkness
Indeed the only major crop developed for the world market that could withstand the high costs of transport to the coast—over some miles of railway—was cotton, and that only after considerable further investment in irrigation. Ultimately the main economic role of the Sudan was to provide foodstuffs for Senegal, whose peasant farmers found it more profitable to concentrate on growing peanuts for export.
By French economic strategy had shifted from the concept of opening up the inland territories of the French Sudan, Upper Volta, and Niger, to the encouragement of agricultural production in the coastal colonies. To a limited extent, the way was pioneered by European plantations, more especially perhaps in the Ivory Coast.
Generally these colonies were made remunerative by administrative pressures to induce African farmers to produce for export. Ultimately, just as the economy of the Senegal had become largely dependent on the export of peanuts, so that of French Guinea became dependent on bananas though at the very end of the colonial period, European and American capital began the successful exploitation of considerable deposits of bauxite and iron oreand the economies of Dahomey and of Togo after its conquest from Germany became dependent on palm produce.
The most dramatic successes were achieved in the Ivory Coast, where considerable exports were developed of coffee, cocoa, bananas, and lumber. Railways were built from suitable points on the coast to facilitate the export of these crops. The significance of the figures is also obscured by the federal system to which all the colonies except Togo were subject and which was deliberately used to enable the richer colonies to help the poorer. The trade and revenue figures cannot be easily broken down between the individual colonies.
The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction
British territories Each of the four British colonies must necessarily be treated as an independent unit, as each was so treated in British policy. The Gambia was merely a strip of land, averaging only seven miles in width, on either side of miles of navigable waterway penetrating into what otherwise was French Senegal.
Even in the s its population did not exceed , and the possibilities for any sort of development were limited. In fact the colony achieved a fair degree of prosperity by concentrating on the production of peanuts, grown in part by farmers who migrated annually from Senegal for the purpose.
The Sierra Leone situation was one of a relatively dense population exploiting or even overexploiting a poor environment for its subsistence, and initially the most that was achieved was to develop some palm produce for export.
During the s the situation began to change when European companies began to exploit extensive diamond-bearing gravels and to mine high-grade iron ore. About half of this was based on the activities of the foreign-owned mining companies.
These provided little local employment; and furthermore, large numbers of people had been led to abandon farming to dig for diamonds on their own account. This gave rise to numerous social, economic, and political problems, because legally the diamond-bearing grounds had been conceded to the European companies.
These factors may explain why the increase in government revenue, and hence the capacity of the government to sponsor further development, was low in comparison with other western African territories.
The Gold Coast was a complete contrast, indeed one of the most successful examples of colonial development anywhere in British tropical Africa.
The people of its coastlands were long accustomed to world trade, and indeed to British rule, with the result that the Gold Coast entered the colonial period with a very high level of economic activity.
Subsequent development was facilitated by the possession, within a manageable area that was adequately but not too densely populated, of a considerable variety of resources. The first railway was built inland from Sekondi in the southeastern Gold Coast between and with the dual purpose of supporting gold mining and ensuring political control of Asante. This railway subsequently was used for the removal of manganese ore and bauxite. Extensive diamond diggings, worked equally by individual Africans and by European companies, began to be developed from onward.
But the mainstay of the economy became cocoa, which local farmers began to produce on small plots in the forest toward the end of the 19th century. They found a reliable market for their produce. Nigeria provides yet another contrast. The people of its southern territories, like those of the southern Gold Coast or of Senegal, had long been in touch with the world economy.
But Nigeria was a giant territory, three times as large as the other three British colonies put together, and though compared with the French federation it was relatively small and compactsquare milesit had the same problem of extending over a considerable area of the remote western Sudan. By the mids the Nigerian population was more than 32 million, more than half that of western Africa.
Two things were clearly needed: No coherent policy was possible, however, before the amalgamation of the separate colonial administrations, which was achieved under Lugard in — Initially, even railway building tended to provoke disunion.
The first line was built inland from Lagos in — to open up Yorubaland. Before this line was extended to the north across the Niger, the northern government had begun its own railway, from the highest point of navigation on the river, through its new administrative capital of Kaduna, to Kano. In this was intercepted by an extension of the Lagos line, and subsequently branches were built to areas active in tin mining and the cultivation of peanuts.
Finally, another line was built from a new eastern port, Port Harcourtto the coal mines around Enuguand this was subsequently extended to Kaduna By the s Nigeria had 1, miles of railway, nearly as many as those possessed by all the French territories together 2, miles but built at nearly twice the cost. While southern Nigerian development, based essentially on cocoa production in the west and processing of palm oil and kernels in the east, followed much the same pattern as that of the southern Gold Coast, and with essentially similar social consequences, the development of peanuts as the prime export crop of the north did not produce comparable results for its appreciably larger population.
While we should be mindful of this diversity, we can still make certain generalizations. Few Europeans considered Native Americans their equals, because of differences in religion, agricultural practice, housing, dress, and other characteristics that—to Europeans—indicated Native American inferiority. However, the French, Spanish, and Dutch sought profit through trade and exploitation of New World resources, and they knew that the native people would be important to their success.
Europeans also wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity. Therefore, economic gain and religion were the two factors that most affected the dynamics of European and indigenous American relationships. After enslaving indigenous peoples in the Caribbean and the southern parts of the Americas to grow crops and mine for gold, silver, and other valuables, the Spanish moved into North America where they concentrated their efforts in what is now the southwestern and southeastern United States.
Augustine but only a small number of Spaniards settled there. Catholic missionaries labored to convert the Indians to Christianity, and they experienced some success baptizing and transforming the Guale and Timucuan peoples into farmers.
But even the most cooperative Indians continued to maintain their own religious and cultural traditions, and many priests concluded that the Indians were inferior and incapable of understanding Christianity. Indigenous populations declined over the seventeenth century as epidemics brought by the Spanish killed large numbers of natives. Instead of enslaving Native Americans in farming and mining operations, the French exploited existing inter-tribal alliances and rivalries to establish trade relationships with the Huron, Montagnais, and Algonquins along the St.
Lawrence River and further inland toward the Great Lakes. These Native Americans competed for exclusive status as intermediaries between other Indian traders and the French.