Chlorophyll and carotenoids relationship counseling

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHLOROPHYLL AND THE CAROTENOIDS IN THE ALGAL FLAGELLATE, EUGLENA

Chloroplasts contain pigments, such as carotenoids and chlorophyll, in order to absorb light from across the color spectrum. Different colored pigments are able. decline in chlorophyll content and the increase in red fluorescence chlorophylls and carotenoids of leaves is relationships between the intensity of. Chlorophyll is a green pigment in plants and algae which is which is made up of core proteins that bind chlorophyll a with the carotenoids.

There are several kinds of chlorophyll, the most important being chlorophyll "a".

The relationship between chlorophyll and the carotenoids in the algal flagellate, Euglena.

This is the molecule which makes photosynthesis possible, by passing its energized electrons on to molecules which will manufacture sugars. All plants, algae, and cyanobacteria which photosynthesize contain chlorophyll "a". A second kind of chlorophyll is chlorophyll "b", which occurs only in "green algae" and in the plants.

  • Difference Between Chlorophyll A and B
  • The Importance of Phytochemicals in Your Diet
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A third form of chlorophyll which is common is not surprisingly called chlorophyll "c", and is found only in the photosynthetic members of the Chromista as well as the dinoflagellates. The differences between the chlorophylls of these major groups was one of the first clues that they were not as closely related as previously thought. Carotenoids are usually red, orange, or yellow pigments, and include the familiar compound carotene, which gives carrots their color.

Difference Between Chlorophyll and Chloroplasts

These compounds are composed of two small six-carbon rings connected by a "chain" of carbon atoms. As a result, they do not dissolve in water, and must be attached to membranes within the cell. Carotenoids cannot transfer sunlight energy directly to the photosynthetic pathway, but must pass their absorbed energy to chlorophyll.

For this reason, they are called accessory pigments.

Photosynthetic Pigments

One very visible accessory pigment is fucoxanthin the brown pigment which colors kelps and other brown algae as well as the diatoms. Phycobilins are water-soluble pigments, and are therefore found in the cytoplasm, or in the stroma of the chloroplast. They occur only in Cyanobacteria and Rhodophyta.

The picture at the right shows the two classes of phycobilins which may be extracted from these "algae". The vial on the left contains the bluish pigment phycocyanin, which gives the Cyanobacteria their name. The vial on the right contains the reddish pigment phycoerythrin, which gives the red algae their common name. Phycobilins are not only useful to the organisms which use them for soaking up light energy; they have also found use as research tools.

What are these you ask? Flavonoids are a class of phytochemicals found in plant pigments that has been said to act as an antioxidant, enhance effects of vitamin C and strengthen cell tissues. Today, one of the most talked about flavonoids is quercetin. Quercetin is found in apples, onions, citrus fruits, berries, red grapes, broccoli, cocoa, and tea.

It may not only protect us against heart disease and cancer, but according to recent research, it may increase endurance for people who are beginning exercise regimens. It may not work as effectively in trained athletes. Carotenoids are class of phytochemicals with more than naturally occurring pigments synthesized by plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Carotenoids are found in the most richly colored yellow, orange, and red fruits and vegetables like pumpkin, tomatoes, tangerines, cantaloupe, carrots, squash, and watermelons.

Carontenoids are known for their high antioxidant properties and protective effects against certain cancers, like prostate.

Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxathin are the most common dietary carotenoids. Beta-carotene found in carrots and other fruits and veggies can be converted to retinol which is a pre-cursor to vitamin A which is important for maintaining eye health.

For some of these foods, cooking and chopping may increase the availability and enhance their beneficial effects. Chlorophyll is a class of phytochemicals that is responsible for giving plants their green pigment.