Poverty and Crime - Oxford Handbooks
consequences of such behavior. The problem is that having a low IQ is also associated with poor school performance so the correlation between IQ and crime. Poverty is widely believed to cause violence. Underemployment, and Property Crime: Differential Effects of Job Availability and Job Quality on Juvenile and. reflects a growing interest in the impact of poverty on crime, coinciding with Associations, correlations and causes in poverty-crime relationships were.
Then the cycle continues to perpetuate itself again and again. Crime is simply a means to an end. And often the prize of a successful crime outweighs the risk of being caught, which further increases the crime rate in areas of poverty. In a free-market society, a common belief regarding poverty is that each person is responsible for their own circumstances. It is true that one of the risk factors for drug use is poverty. The same is true for alcoholism.
Yet the stereotype is that the risk factor not only applies to everyone in poverty, but that everyone is struggling with some form of addiction. If they could only get a job, they would be fine. And since drug use and public alcohol use is often illegal, these activities then contribute to the local crime rate. In reality, the problem comes back to the stresses that occur when a household or individual is living in poverty.
Not being able to have a basic need met, like knowing when your next meal will be or what it will be, can lead people to a breaking point. They seek out any relief that they can find. Many times, that relief ends up being in a bottle or a needle.
Causes and Effects of Poverty
Stress relief also involves risky decisions to alleviate, if but for a moment, what poverty is placing upon an individual. That brief monetary reward is enough to purchase another fix that can help someone forget where they are. Then they repeat the behavior because the reward of forgetting is worth the risk of future health problems or getting caught.
Greater Socioeconomic Gaps Also Encourage Greater Crime Setting all stereotypes aside, poverty influences crime rates because at its core, it highlights and reinforces the differences between the wealthy class and those who are poor.
The greater the gap happens to be, then the greater the benefits are to a thief to use that wealth in some way to their own advantage. This socioeconomic gap is seen in many different ways in our society today. Children who come from homes in poverty are more likely to be expelled from school or to have a police record than a child who makes the same choices as the poor child, but has more overall wealth.
Societies that have age gaps are also prone to more crime when poverty is a factor in the community. This is because of the number of possessions that elderly households are perceived to have, along with the natural vulnerability which comes with age.
Causes and Effects of Poverty
Communities which have a higher percentage of inhabitants that are under the age of 25 may also lead to higher crime rates, especially if there are large socioeconomic gaps between different households of that age group. It is these differences which also encourage a higher overall crime rate in minority populations in the United States. Many minority households live in urban areas and may have built-in struggles with poverty for multiple generations. Yet socioeconomic gaps also create the potential for crime within communities that are struggling with poverty.
These gaps are just not always associated with money. Business owners may take advantage of the desperation of poverty and offer jobs with wages well below legal limits. There are even precedents of having local law enforcement officials extorting money from those who are in poverty, which then creates a lack of functional restraint on the crime that exists in these areas.
A World Where Not All Crimes Are Created or Treated Equally During a year period of economic difficulty which started in Europe inthere was a rise in unemployment in uneducated youth and a rise of theft and violence that rose at the same time. This led to an effort to create more educational opportunities, as multiple studies have shown that higher educational levels lead to lower overall violent crime. Higher unemployment would certainly increase poverty and at the same time lead to more crime due to depression associated with being unemployed.
Personal income per capita, which is inversely correlated with the poverty level, still may increase crime since greater wealth means greater benefits to thieves and robbers. Furthermore, because of social class gaps, personal income per capita rates may not affect poverty to a great extent the income may be concentrated in a small percentage of the population.
It might even accentuate the difference between the upper and lower classes, thereby inducing more crime. Variations in the composition of population can affect crime in different ways. First, adolescents are often responsible for crimes committed. A higher percentage of inhabitants under the age of twenty-five may lead to higher crime rates. On the other hand, the elderly, because of their possessions and vulnerability, are believed to be the most frequent victims of crime.
How Poverty Influences Crime Rates
The degree of minority population in an area is also correlated with poverty due to the disproportional amount of minorities living in impoverished urban areas.
In addition, racism towards minorities can lead to lower wages and fewer jobs, resulting in higher poverty rates. Geographic regions within the US have different characteristics and therefore lead to differing levels of both crime and poverty. The UCR report, for example, indicates that law enforcement personnel varied between 2.
Climate, associated with geographical location, is also believed to affect crime - more temperate climates being positively correlated with crime. Causes of poverty Poverty is an exceptionally complicated social phenomenon, and trying to discover its causes is equally complicated.
The stereotypic and simplistic explanation persists—that the poor cause their own poverty—based on the notion that anything is possible in America. Still other theorists have characterized the poor as fatalists, resigning themselves to a culture of poverty in which nothing can be done to change their economic outcomes.
In this culture of poverty—which passes from generation to generation—the poor feel negative, inferior, passive, hopeless, and powerless. Not only are most poor people able and willing to work hard, they do so when given the chance. More recently, sociologists have focused on other theories of poverty.
One theory of poverty has to do with the flight of the middle class, including employers, from the cities and into the suburbs. As a result of this view, the welfare system has come under increasing attack in recent years. Again, no simple explanations for or solutions to the problem of poverty exist.
Although varying theories abound, sociologists will continue to pay attention to this issue in the years to come. The effects of poverty The effects of poverty are serious. Children who grow up in poverty suffer more persistent, frequent, and severe health problems than do children who grow up under better financial circumstances. Many infants born into poverty have a low birth weight, which is associated with many preventable mental and physical disabilities.