KARDINER, ABRAM (–), U.S. psychoanalyst. Born and educated in New York City, Kardiner studied with *Freud from to In he was. Dr. Abram Kardiner, a leading American psychoanalyst who was one of the last living persons to have been analyzed by Sigmund Freud, died. Abram Kardiner’s 13 research works with citations and reads, including: The Mark of Oppression: Exploration in the Personality of the American Negro.
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Abram Kardiner was a psychiatrist and pioneering psychoanalyst who made major contributions to psychological and psychoanalytic anthropology as well as to his own professions.
He was particularly interested in the psychological adaptation of the ego to war, society, oppression, and culture. Kardiner is best known in anthropology for his concepts of basic personality structure and projective systems. Kardiner was born in in New York City.
In he went to Vienna for a six-month training analysis with Sigmund Freud, and also took the opportunity to attend lectures by Geza Roheim on psychoanalysis and anthropology.
Kardiner is now credited with defining posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD. Kardiner co-founded the New York Psychoanalytic Institute inthe first such training institute in the U.
Inthe director, Sandor Rado, asked Kardiner to develop a course on the application of psychoanalysis to the study of culture.
The first session had only two students, but the seminar eventually grew to a hundred and included many distinguished anthropologists. The standard practice was for an anthropologist to describe a culture; Kardiner would then analyze it in terms of his neo-Freudian ego psychology.
Ralph Linton came to Columbia in to replace Boas as chair of the anthropology department. Linton was introduced to Kardiner by the psychologist Abraham Maslow, who was a participant in the seminar and a former student of Linton.
Kardiner published his major contribution to anthropology, The Individual and His Society inwith Linton as a contributor.
Abram Kardiner | American scholar |
Kardiner postulated the existence of a basic personality structure BPS personality traits shared by members of a society as a result of common early experiences. This BPS abra unconscious conflicts and anxieties that motivated behavior. He divided culture into primary institutions, which generated the BPS, and secondary institutions, which were kagdiner of the BPS.
The primary institutions included older, more stable elements of a culture such as technology, economics, family structure, and child-training practices, while the secondary institutions included religion, ritual, folklore, mythology, taboos, and art. Secondary institutions were based on the psychological process of projection and served to satisfy unmet needs symbolically.
Basically, Kardiner posited a congruence between childhood experiences and expressive culture, mediated by abfam BPS, the same kind of congruity that Freud identified between parents and gods in The Future of an Illusion.
One problem Kardiner encountered was the availability of cultural, but not psychological data on the societies investigated.
Cora DuBois was a postdoctoral student studying with Kardiner in Kardiner saw the results as confirmation of his theory of a shared personality. But in her classic ethnography, The People of Alorwhich included chapters and sections by Kardiner, DuBois replaced the concept of basic personality with modal personality, referring to central tendencies in the personalities of members of a kardijer that are not necessarily shared by all.
After the war, Linton left Columbia, and Kardiner moved his seminar to the sociology department. Kardiner sought to demonstrate the applicability of his BPS theory to modern, complex American society with the publication in of The Mark of Oppression: This study involved four years of intensive research with 25 individuals, and it identified common personality dynamics that African Americans had developed, according to Kardiner, to cope with discrimination.
He returned to the subject of anthropology in with They Studied Man, a study of the beginnings of cultural anthropology that focused on the lives of ten scholars and the ethos of the times.
His last book was My Analysis with Freud: Kardiner died in at the age of